April 2019, Volume 69, Issue 8


The evolution of medical curricula in Iraq

Saadealdeen Majeed Hasson

Although healing practices in ancient Mesopotamia (roughly centered on modern-day Iraq) involved the use of magic, chants, and divination, physicians had an extensive knowledge of diagnosis, a wide list of drug treatments, and carried out basic surgery.1 They were also bound by a well-established, formal code of conduct. From some 5,300 years ago, the cuneiform writing of Sumerian and the following Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian cultures provide exciting snapshots of physicians and their craft. 1 Mesopotamian physicians used around 250 medicinal plants, 120 minerals, and about 2

Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association has agreed to receive and publish manuscripts in accordance with the principles of the following committees: