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July 2017, Volume 67, Issue 7

Letter to the Editor

Probiotic yogurt effect on macronutrients ingredients, blood glucose and lipid profile in type 2 diabetes

Zahra Tazakori  ( Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil )
Maryam Zare  ( PhD Student Nutrition Sciences of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Professor of Khalkhal Faculty of Medical Science, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil )
Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi  ( Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran )

Madam, in last decade probiotics were introduced as a useful supplement on human health. As a result lactobacilli acidofilus and bifidobacterium have been more often used in dairy products.1 It is said that Lactobacillus can reduce the transferring of triglycerides in lymph and increase the excretion of fatty acids in faeces, therefore prevent the lipid absorption in intestinal tract.2 Recent researches in Iran indicated that consumption of various probiotics have yielded mixed results. Probiotic yogurt could help in reduction of lipids in diabetic patients,3 decreasing the levels of total cholesterol and LDL4 and a beneficial effect on glycaemic level, insulin action, oxidative Stress, and inflammatory markers.5
Therefore a parallel group randomized controlled clinical trial on sixty diabetic type 2 patients was conducted, to assess the effect of probiotic(lactobacilli acidofilus and bifidobacterium) yogurt versus conventional yogurt (each groups 100mg twice a day) on macronutrients ingredients, blood glucose and lipid profile. Eligibility criteria were including: Diabetic patients, age between 25 and 65 years and fasting blood glucose >126 mg/dl. Exclusion criteria were: no positive history of chronic illnesses, patients on insulin therapy; smoking; lactose intolerance; thyroid dysfunction; chronic inflammatory diseases; pregnancy; breast feeding; and those on weight loss or weight gain regimes. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics committee of ARUMS (IR.ARUMS.REC.1394.143), and all participants were informed about the process of experiment and signed the consent papers.
The LDL blood concentration was checked by Friedwald formula5 and TG, total cholesterol, by photometry method (pars Amazon kit5).3
A 24 hours recall on intake of food and physical activity was noted (With modified International physical activity Questionnaire6). Results showed that energy and carbohydrate decreased in probiotic group with no significant difference, the average fasting glucose and 2 hour post meal glucose adjusted with baseline measurements, had no significant difference too. The mean triglyceride levels after taking probiotic yogurt were significantly reduced from 257.9± 33.9 to 189.5 ±68.1 mg/dl (P<0.001), Cholesterol levels were decreased in both groups with probiotic group having a statistically significant difference (p=0.013), also HDL levels increased significantly from 49.8±10.2 to 56.2±7.35 mg/dl (P<0.001) and LDL levels decreased significantly from 175.56 ± 32.8 to 123.06 ±25.5 mg/dl (P<0.001) in probiotic group. No significant changes of HDL and LDL were observed in the control group. Our study concludes that probiotic yogurt can improve diabetic patients\\\' lipid profile with no lowering effect on blood glucose.

Conflict of Interest: None.
Funding Sources: Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.


1. Lourens-Hattingh A, Viljoen BC. Yogurt as probiotic carrier food. Inter Dairy J. 2001; 11:1-17.
2. Ogawa A, Kadooka Y, Kato K, Shirouchi B, Sato M. Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 reduces postprandial and fasting serum non-esterified fatty acid levels in Japanese hypertriacyl glycerolemic subjects. Lipids Health Dis. 2014; 13:36.
3. Shakeri H, Hadaegh H, Abedi F, Tajabadi-Ebrahimi M, Mazroii N, Ghandi Y, et al. Consumption of synbiotic bread decreases triacylglycerol and VLDL levels while increasing HDL levels in serum from patients with type-2 diabetes. Lipids. 2014; 49:695-701.
4. Ejtahed H, Mohtadi Nia J, Homayouni Rad A, Niafar M, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Mofid V. The effects of probiotic yoghurt consumption on blood pressure and serum lipids in type 2 diabetic patients: Randomized clinical trial. Iranian J Nutri Sci & Food Tech. 2012; 6:1-12.
5. Rostami M, Aberomand M, Khirollah AR, Jorfi M, Malihi R , Noorbehbahani M, et al. The comparison of Friedwald formula and direct measurement to determine the serum levels of LDL-C J Gorgan Uni Med Sci. 2012, 14:94-9.
6. Bassett DR Jr. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003; 35:1396.

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