July 1988, Volume 38, Issue 7

Original Article


Javed Iqbal Kazi  ( Departments of Pathology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi-35. )
Syed Mahmood Alam  ( Departments of Pathology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi-35. )
Moeed Kazi  ( Departments of Medicine, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi-35. )
Aftab Anwar  ( G. I. Consultants, 5/15 Rimpa Plaza, M.A. Jinnah Road, Karachi. )
Ziauddin Shamsi  ( G. I. Consultants, 5/15 Rimpa Plaza, M.A. Jinnah Road, Karachi. )
S.M. Rab  ( Departments of Medicine, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi-35. )


A histopathological study of endoscopic biopsies of 193 patients is presented. The commonest lesions were gastritides (108); other lesions found were Ulcers (7), and Carcinoma (9) while no significant changes were found in 64 cases (JPMA 38: 177, 1988).


The use of flexible fiberoptic gastroscope has become a part of routine gastroenterological practice. It allows a direct look of upper gastroin­testinal mucosa and target biopsies can be taken under direct vision. Endoscopic examination alone is not sufficient since many lesions need histolo­gical identification like metaplasia, dysplasia, atypia and carcinoma in situ.1 This histopa­thological study was done to determine the frequency of various lesions seen in the endos. copic biopsies of the stomach.


The material comprised of 310 biopsies from 193 patients, which were flattened on a piece of filter paper and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and processed for paraffin embedding. The sections were stained for H&E, PAS, Trichrome and Reticulin. Gastritides were classified according to Whitehead2 and carcinoma according to Lauren’s3 classification.


The ages of the cases ranged between 11-80 years and there were 115 males and 78 females. One hundred and fifty nine gastric biopsies were from the body and 151 were from the antrum (Tables 1 and II).

In 116 cases paired biopsies were taken from body and antrum.
No significant changes were found in 64 (33%). One hundred and eight (56%) had gastri­tides, 7 (3.6%) ulcers, 9 (4.6%) carcinomas, 2 (1%) erosions, 2 (1%) gastric mucosal hyperplasia and one patient had regenerative polyp.
Of the 108 cases of gastritides, acute gas­tritis was found in 3, chronic gastritis in 80, atrophic gastritis in 9 while in 15 patients a com­bination of chronic and atrophic gastritis were found in paired biopsies of stomach, body and antrum. A single case of eosinophilic gastritis was also seen. In 43 patients gastritis (Figure 1-4)

involved antrum onIY while in 40 both body and antrum were involved. In 25 cases only the body of the stomach was involved. Of the nine cases of gastric carcinoma, diffuse type was found in 7 while intestinal type occurred in 2 cases.
In this series, the commonest lesion was gastritis (56%) which is comparable (57%) with that reported by Rotterdam.4 A much higher frequency (82%) has been reported by Joske et al.5 In Japan over 90% of the population above the age of 60 years suffers from chronic gastritis.6 A low frequency (16%) of chronic gastritis has been reported from neighbouring country of India.7 Higher frequencies of gastric ulcer (13%) and carcinomas (11%) has. been reported by Rotterdam4 Similarly Simha and Doctor7 have also reported higher frequencies of these lesions, gastric ulcers (10.6%) and gastric carcinomas (30%) (Table lll).

Histological examination of endoscopic biopsies is important not only in diagnosis but also in knowing the frequencies of different upper gastrointestinal lesions.


We are thankful to ProfessorN.A. Jafarey and Dr. Sarwar Zuberi for their kind guidance.


1. Cheijfec, G. Atypias, dysplasia and neoplasia of the esophagus and stomach. Semin. Diagn. Pathol., 1985;2:31.
2. Whitehead, R. Mucosal biopsy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Saunder, 1979.
3. Lauren, P. The two histological main types of gastric carcinoma; diffuse and so-called intestinal-type carcinoma. An attempt at a histo.clinical classification. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand., 1965;64 :31.
4. Rotterdam, H. Contributions of gastrointestinal biopsy to an understanding of gastrointestinal disease. Am. J. Gastroenterol, 1983; 78 : 140.
5. Joske, R.A., Furekh, E.S. and Wood, IJ.Gastric biopsy. QJ. Med., 1985; 24 :269.
6. Owen, D.A. Gastritis and duodenitis, in pathology of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. Edited by Henry D. Appleman. New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1984, p. 37.
7. Simha, M.R. and Doctor, V.M. Histological analysis of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic biopsies. Indian J. Gastroenterol., 1986; 5: 197.

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