Bread is used as a reference food in most of the studies9,10. In this study wheat chapati is used as a reference food because this is the staple food of 80% of population in the subcontinent. In another study our group has shown that glycaemic index of wheat chapati is less than that of bread (unpublished). The glycaemic index of at least 120 foods and sugars have been determined by six groups of workers around the world1,6,8,11. The glycaemic index of baisen has not been determined so far but that of other beans varies from 40 to 50 as compared with whole wheat10. The glycaemic index of gram dal was demonstrated to be significantly lower than that of cereals7. In another study the mean peak rise in plasma glucose was decreased by 82.1% with Bengal gram dal while wheat and rice showed reduction only by 25 and 16% respectively, when compared with glucose12. This study shows that baisçn chapati has a significantly lower glycaemic index as compared with wheat chapati and is useful staple food substitute for diabetics. Most of the food items produce higher glycaemic indices when used in ground form. Ground rice produces a much higher blood glucose peak level than does whole rice13. Similarly ground carrots produce a more prolonged glucose response than do minced carrots9. Baisen, being ground form of gram seed, is peculiar in having low glycaemic index. Injenkin’s and others study, the glycaemic index of rice (80( was significantly lower than that of wheat bread in diabetics5,14. Glycaemic index of boiled rice was 73 as compared to white wheat bread. Comparing rice and wheat containing meals in healthy subjects, average blood glucose response of rice was less than that of wheat, though not significant15. The peak blood glucose rise with wheat chapati occurred at 1.5 hours while peak occurred at one hour with rice5,15. In our study the glycaemic index of rice was not significantly different from that of wheat but peak rise occurred earlier with rice as compared to wheat. Results of present and previous studies indicate that there is no truth in the belief that rice aggravates diabetic status. Coulston et al16 reported that the glycaemic responses to mixed meals containing different types of carbohydrate sources did not differ significantly. Therefore, the glycaemic index approach may have limited clinical utility. Wolever et al17 refuted these conclusions by demonstrating that the observed glycaemic responses would be predicted by glycaemic indices of component foods. This study and others favour the latter observation18-21. Findings of this study indicate that baisen chapati is significantly better than wheat chapati, rice can be used as a carbohydrate staple food and glycaemic indices of individual foods may be used as a guideline for planning a diabetic meal.
1. Jenkins, D.J.A., Wolever, T.M.S., Taylor, R.H., Barker, H.. Fielden, H., Baldwin, 3M., Bowling, AC., Newman, HG., Jenkins, AL and Golf, DV. Glycaemic indexol foods; a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchanges. Am. 3. Clin. Nutr., 1981; 34:362-6.
2. American Diabetic Association. Policy statement: glycaemie effects of carbohydrate. Diabetes Care, 1984; 7:607-8.
3. Special Report Committee of the Canadian Diabetes Asaoeiation. Guidelines for the nutritional management of diabetes mellitus. 1 Can. Dietet. Aasoc., 1981; 42:110-18.
4. Grapo, P.A., Insel, 3., Sperling, M. and Kolterman, 0G. Comparison of serum glucose, insulin and glucagon responses to different typesof complexcarbohydrate in noninaulin dependent diabetic patients. Am. 3. Clin. Nutr., 1981; 34:184-90.
5. Jenkins, D.J.A., Wolever, T.M.S., Jenkins, AL, Thorne, M.J., Lee, R., Kalmusky, 3., Reicherl, R. and Wong, G.S.Theglycaemic indexof foods tested in diabetic patients; a new basis for carbohydrate exchanges favouring the use of legumes. Diabetologia, 1983; 24:257-64.
6. Tonescue-Targoviste, C., Popa, B., Sintu, B.. Mihalaehe, N., Cheta, D. and Mincu, L Blood glucose and plasma insulin responses to various carbohydrates in type 2 (noninsulin dependent) diabetes Diabetologia, 1983; 24:80-4.
7. Walker, AR. and Walker, BE Glycaemic index of South African foods detennined in rural blacks a population at lowriak ofdiabetes. Hum. Nutr. Clin. Nut, 1984; 38:215-22.
8. Brand, J.C., Nicholson, P.L,Thorburn,A.W. and Truswell, A.S., Food proeessingand glycaemic index Am. 3. Clin. Nutr., 1985; 42:1192-6.
9. Thorburn, A.W., Brand, 3G. and Truswell, A.S. The glycaemic index of foods. Med. 3. Aust., 1986; 144:580-2.
10. Jenkins, D.J.A., Wolever, T.M.S., Jenkins, AL., Josse, R.G. and Wong, G.5. The glycaemic response to carbohydrate foods. Lancet, 1984; 2:388-91.
11. Crapo, P.A., Reaven, G. and Olefsky, 3. Postprandial plasma. glucose and insulin responses to different complexcarbohydrates. Diabetes, 1977:26:1178-83.
12. Dilawari, J.B., Kamath, P.S., Batta, R.P., Mukewar, S. and Raghavan, 5. Reduction of postprandial plasmaglucosebyBengal gram dal (cicersrietinum) andrsjmab (phaseolus vulgaris). Am.J. Clin. Nutr., 1981; 34:2450-3.
13. O’Dea, K, Nestel, P.3. and Antonort L Physical factors influencing postprandial glucose and insulin response to starch. Am. 3. Clin. Nutr., 1980; 32;760-5
14. Jenkins, D.J.A., Wolever, T.M.S., Thorne, M.J., Jenkins, AL, Wong, 0.5., Josse, R.G. and Cairns, A The relationship between glycaemic response, digestibility and factors influencing the dietary habits of diabetics. Am. 3. Clin. Nutr., 1984; 40:1175-91.
15. Ansari, N.M., Masood, F., Butt, AK, Sadiq, F.A., Afshan, It and Haq, H.H. Glycaemic behaviourof rice and wheat as part of mixed Pakistani diet. PakistanJ. Med. Res., 1989; 28:27-31.
16. Coulston, AM., Hollenbeck, C.B., Uu, G.C., Williams, R.A., Starich, G.H., Mazzafeni, E.L. and Reaven, G.M. Effects of source of dietary carbohydrate on plasma glucose, insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses to teat meals in subjects with noninaulin-dependent diabetesmellitus. Am.J. Clin. Nutr., 1984; 40:965-70.
17. Wolever, T.M.S., Nuttal, F.Q., Lee, it, Wong, G.S., Josse, ltG., Csima, A and Jenkins, D.J. Prediction of relative blood glucose response of mixed meals using the white bread glycaemic index. Diabetes Care, 1985; 8:418-28.
18. Jenkins, D.J., Wolever, T.M. and Jenkins, AL Starchy foods and glycaemic index. Diabetes Care, 1988; 11:149-59.
19. Chew, I., Brand, J.C., Thorburn, A.W. and Truswell, AS. Application ofglycaemie index to mixed meals. Am.J. Clin. Nutr., 1988; 47:53-6.
20. Collier, OR., Wolever, T.M., Wong, 0.5. and Josse, R.G. Prediction of glycaemic responses to mixed meals in noninsulin. dependent diabetic subjects. Am. 3. Clin. Nutr., 1986;44:349-52.
21. Bornet, F.lt, Costagliola, D., Rizkalla, S.W., Blayo, A, Fotvieille, AM., Haardl, M.J., Letanoux, M.,Tcbobrousaky, C. and Slama, C. Insulinemic and glycaemic indexes of six starch- rich foods taken alone and in a mixed meal by type 2diabetics. Am. J.Clin. Nutr., 1987; 45:588-95.