September 1994, Volume 44, Issue 9

Short Reports

Association Between Education and Health Household Survey of Faisalabad Tehsil

Abid Parvez  ( PMRC Research Centre, Punjab Medical College, Faisalabad. )
Naseer A. Chaudhry  ( PMRC Research Centre, Punjab Medical College, Faisalabad. )
F.M. Chaudhary  ( PMRC Research Centre, Punjab Medical College, Faisalabad. )
Muhammad Ashfaq  ( Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. )


Literacy1 plays a significant role in the development process of any country. It reflects the progress of country in different walks of life. Health of population which according to W.H.O. is described as “state of complete physical, mental and social well-being” 1 has been studied intenns of education. A household survey was conducted in urban and rural areas of Faisalabad Tehsil having 1.12 million urban and 0.93 million rural population2 to determine literacy and study associations between education levels and moibidity, education levels and modes of treatment.

Patients, Methods and Results

The universe of this study included all the urban and rural households in Faisalabad Tehsil. A total of 8,217 persons of age ten years and above from randomly selected house­holds1,3 were surveyed to collect required information on pretested proforma in 1987. The persons classified as sick were those who were unable to perform usual daily routine, being unable to take normal food and requiring bed rest, for atleast 24 hours. The chronic cases were treated as sick irrespective of the above criteria. The data thus collected were compiled for presentation and analysis. Overall literacy rate was 40.8% which is higher than reported (31.7%) at the time of 1981 census2. The urban-rural and male- female differences are quite striking (Table I). As shown in Table II, the prevalence of sickness was highest (28%) among illiterates and decreased with the advancement in education being lowest (15%) among col­lege/university level. This is in accordance with National Health Survey study1. Similar trend was noticed in u than areas, while in rural areas the difference was visible after high school education. As regards sex, remarkable difference was reported among sick males after high school education while in females continuous decrease was noted. Table III indicates that majority of the illiterate sick persons (72%) got treatment from consultants of group 3 (3-5um). This is probably due to the flattening of the specimen (homeopath, hakim, quack, peer, self, etc.) as against col­lege/university educated people (45%). While studying u than rural trend, it was observed that against urban areas majority of rural sick persons in all education categories went to group 3 consultants for treatment. The reason may be easy access to group 3 consultants and lack of awareness. Significant role of education was also noted in selection of treatment modes by sick patients. It was observed that only a very small portion of sick persons visited government hospital/dispensary for treatment in all education categories probably indicating insufficient health facilities4. The study emphasizes the need to raise the literacy for improvement of health standards.


The present study showed a strong association be­tween education and health, which not only prevented the illness but also alerted the mode of treatment. Though a majority of sick people were aware of specialist treatment but lack of such facilities in most rural and few urban areas prevented them fromutilising such facilities.


1. National Health Survey 1982-83. Federal Bureau of Statialics Kara­chi; Statistics Division, Government of Pakistan, 1986, PP 11, 13-108.
2. Pakistan Government. 1981 District Census Report of Faisalabad, Population Census Organisation, lalamabad; Statistics Diviaion, Government of Pakistan, 1984, P. 19.
3. Aahfaq, M., Ahmed, M. and Khan, MY. Sample sizes for estimating qualitative characteriatica, proceedinga, National Seminar on Statis­tical Techniques for under developed areas, Quetta; Department of Statistics, University of Baluchistan and Pakistan Ststistical Asso­ciation, 1984;(22), pp. 80-85.
4. Psrvez, A., Chaudhry, N.A., Chaudhry, F.M., et al. Medication attitudes, household survey of Faisalabad Tehsil, .LPak.Med. Assoc., 1989 ;39; 290-91.

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