November 2000, Volume 50, Issue 11

Short Reports

Randomised, Prospective, Controlled Trial comparing Tropisetron with Metoclopramide and Placebo in controlling Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

Syed Razi Muhammad  ( Department of Surgery, Baqai Medical University, Karachi. )
Syed Zafar Abbas  ( Department of Surgery, Baqai Medical University, Karachi. )
Syed Qamar Abbas  ( Department of Surgery, Baqai Medical University, Karachi. )

Abstract

Objective: To Compare the results  of Tropisctron, Metoclopramide and placebo on postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing minilaparotomy cholycystectomy.
Setting: Patients operated for minilaparotomy cholecvstectorny in two Private hospitals in Karachi.
Subjects: Filly Consecutive patients of all ages and both SCX who had simple cholelithiasis and underwent minilaparotomy Cholecystectomy by a single surgeon.
Main outcome measures: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) at 2 hours and within 24 bout’s and requirement of rescue antienietic.
Results: Tropisetron was better than Metoclopramide and placebo in controlling postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Conclusion: Tropisetron when given at induction at a dose 012 mg. intravenously prevents PONV better than Metoclopramide and placebo in 2 hours amid 24 hours. JPMA 50:386, 2000).

Introduction

Postoperative nausea and vomiting ( PONV) is a common complication of operations. Although nausea and vomiting is typically self-limiting lasting less than 24 hours, the consequences must he considered. It can lead to dehydration electrolyte imbalance, metabolic alkalosis, gastric erosions and aspiration of GI contents with subsequent respiratory problems1 It can also delay oral a nutrition and oral drug intake as well as release from hospital2.
Factors which predispose to postoperative nausea and vomiting include age and sex (more common in children and women)1 obesity- prolonged fasting, intake of food soon before induction of GA. previous history of It also reduces the need for rescue antiemetic significantly nausea. Vomiting or motion sickness, duration and depth of anesthesia3 Carbon dioxide retention, rough handling, relative inexperience of anesthetist, type of surgical procedure and number of visitors during recovery.
Many antiemetic have been tried to reduce the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Some have been successful more than others have. Recently 5-H T3 receptor antagonists especially Tropisetron4 and Ondansetron5,6 have been found useful in controlling postoperative nausea and vomiting. Patients, Methods and Results Over a period of 7 months 50 patients with little or no other risk factor for Anesthesia (American Society of Anaesthetists class 1 and 2), between 22-71 years of age with cholelithiasis but no obvious bile duct pathology had minilaparotomy cholecystectomy by a single surgeon. They were controlled for age and sex and a standardised anesthetic techti ique consisting of thiopental for induction and Halothane and Nitrous Oxide for maintenance was used. All patients were randornised to receive immediately after induction one of the following three: Injection Tropisteron 2mg. i/v (group 1).
Injection Metoclopramide 10 rug. i/v (group 2) or injection Normal Saline (N/S) 10 nil. i/v (group 3).
The end points recorded were postoperative nausea and vomiting within 2 hours of operation, postoperative nausea and vomiting within 24 hours of operation and requirement for salvage antiemetic (Metoclopramide 10 mg). Statistical significance was derived using Fisher two— tailed P—value from Epi info software version 6.

Results

Postoperative nausea and vomiting within 2 hours
Postoperative nausea and vomiting occurred within 2 hours in only one patient (6.25%) of tropisetron group (group I). Six patients (37.5%) in rnetoclopramide group (group 2) and 10 patients (55.5%) in Placebo group (group 3) had Postoperative nausea and vomiting. Difference between group I and 2 is statistically’ significant (p value <0.05). Difference between group I and 3 is also statistically significant (p value <0.05). Whereas difference between group 2 and 3 is not Statistically significant (p value >0.05).
Postoperative nausea and vomiting within 24 hours
Postoperative nausea and vomiting occurred within 24 hours in 2 (1 2.5%) patients of tropisetron group. Nine (56.25%) patients in metoclopramide Group and 11(61%) in placebo group. Difference between group 1 and 2 was statistically significant (p value < 0.05).

Difference between group 1 and 3 was also statistically’ significant (p value <0.05) but difference between group 2 and 3 is not statistically significant (p value >0.05).
Need for rescue antiemetic
Two ( l2.5%) patients of tropisetron group required rescue antiemetic as compared to 7 (43.75%) in metoclopramide group and 9 (50%) patients in Placebo group. Difference between group 1 and 2 was not statistically significant (p value >0.05) Nor is difference between group 2 and 3 (p value >0.05). But difference between group I and 3 was statistically significant (p value<0.05).

Discussion

Postoperative nausea and vomiting can occur in 40% to just over 70% of patients after general surgical. gynacological4,7 and orthopaedic6 operations under general anaesthesia. Various regimes have been tried to reduce the incidences of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Recently, there has been interest in comparing the efficacy of new selective 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-hT3 receptor antagonist such as tropisetron (4- 12). granisetron5 and ondansetron5,7 with placebo alone6,9 or including a third group of traditional antiemelic such as metoclopramide5,10. or droperidol4 Understandably, these studies were conducted in the west. Most of these studies showed that the incidence of postoperative nausea & vomiting in placebo group was very high ranging from 40% to 72.4%. Use of metoclopramide reduced it by in various studies. However HT3 receptor antagonists such as Tropisetron has been shown to be more effective in controlling postoperative nausea and vomiting than either placebo14 or Metoclopramide. Table shows studies on the effect of metoclopramide and! or tropisetron on postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Another point of debate has been the optimum dose o of Tropisetron As the cost is directly related to the dosage. it is perhaps more important issue in developing world. We know that the dose of Tropisetron required to prevent postoperative nausea & vomiting is smaller than that needed to control cancer chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting12, Fortunately it has been shown t hat Tropisetron at a smaller dose of 2 mg. is as effective as higher doses in the prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting7,12,13. Pre operative anxiety, especially in children can predispose to increased incidence of postoperative nausea & vomiting15.

Refrencesa Pendiong

1. Sung YF Risks and benefits of drug used in the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Drug Saf, 1996; 14:181-97.
2. Marley RA. Postoperative nausea and vomiting the outpatient enigma. J Perianesth Nurs, 1996;1:147-61.
3. Mann A.A continuing postoperative complication nausea and vomiting, who is affected, why, and what are the contributing factors? A review CRNA. 1998; 9:19-29.
4. Purhonen S: Kauko M: Koski EM; et al. Comparison of tropisetron droperidol, and saline in the prevention of postoperative and vomiting after gynecologic surgery. Anesth Analg, 1997; 84:662-7.
5. Naguib M; el Bakry AK; Khoshim MH. et al. Prophylactic anticmetic therapy with ondansetron, tropisetron, granisetron and metoclopramide in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, diuble-blind comparison with placebo. Can J. Anaesth., 1996;43:226-31.
6. Alexander R and Fennelly M. Comparison of ondansctron, metoclopramide and placebo as premedicants to reduce nausea and vomiting after major surgery, Anaesthesia, 1997;52:695-8.
7. Koivuranta M. Ala-Kokko TI. jokela R et al. Comparison of ondansetron and tropisetron comined with droperidol for the prevention of emesis in women with a history f post-operative nausea and vomiting. Eur J Anaesth 199; 19:309-5.
8. Alon E, Kocian R, Nett PC, et al. Tropisetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in woman undergoing gynecologic surgery. Anesth. Analg., 1996;82:338-41.
9. Alon E; Buchser E; Herrera E; et al. Tropisetron for treating established postoperative nusea and vomiting a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Anesth Analg. 1998;86:617-23.
10. Yilmazlar A; Yillmazlar T; Gurpinar E. et al. Anti-emetic dfficacy of tropisetron and metoclopramide. J Int Med Res, 1996;24:266-70.
11. Chang TC; Hsich F, Lai CH, et al. YK. Comparison of the efficacy of tropisetron versus a metoclopramide cocktail based on the intensity of cisplatin-induced emesis. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, 1996; 37:279-85.
12. Capouet V, De Pauw C, et al. Single dise i.v. tropisetron in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after gynaccological surgery. Br.J. Anaesth., 1996; 76:54-60.
13. Zomers PJW, Langenberg CJM, and de-Bruijm KM. Tropisetron for postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients after gynaceological surgery. Br. J. Anaesth., 1993;71:667-80.
14. Tsui SL, Ng KF, Wong LC et al. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in gynaecological Care, 1992;27:471-76.
15. Wang SM, and Kain ZN. Preoperative anxiety and postoperative nausea and vomiting in children is there an association?. Anesth. Analg.,2000;90:571-75.

Patients, Methods and Results

Over a period of 7 months 50 patients with little or no other risk factor for Anaesthesia (Aamcrican Society of Anaesthetists class 1 and 2), between 22-71 years of age with cholelithiasis but no obvious bile duct pathology had m inilaparotomy cholecystectomy by a single surgeon. They were controlled for age and sex and a standardised anaesthetic techti ique consisting of thiopental for induction and Halothane and Nitrous Oxide for maintenance was used. All patients were randornised to receive immediately after induction one of the following three:
Injection iropisteron 2mg. i/v (group 1)
Injection Metoclopramide 10 rug. i/v (group 2) or
injection Normal Saline (N/S) 10 nil. i/v (group 3)
The end points recorded were postoperative nausea and vomiting within 2 hours of operation, postoperative nausea and vomiting within 24 hours of operation and requirement for salvage antiemetic (Metoclopramide 10 mg). Statistical significance was derived using Fisher two— tailed P—value from Epi info software version 6.

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