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December 2021, Volume 71, Issue 12

Subject Index

Subject Index 2021


MCQ Development

Evaluating the effectiveness of ‘MCQ development workshop using cognitive model framework: A pre-post study,( Ali R et al), Page-119

14-3-3ξ Expression In Cancers

The prognostic relevance of 14-3-3ξ expression in cancers: A meta-analysis , ( Li C et al), Page-1206


Abdominal Vascular Injuries

Abdominal vascular injuries- what general/ trauma surgeons should know? ,( Zia Ur Rehman), Page-2027

Academic Failure In Medical Colleges

Identification and comparison of factors related to academic failure in medical colleges; A Bi-centre comparative study ,( Kiran F et al), Page-1772

Accentuating Cardiovascular Events

Letter to the Editor: Accentuating cardiovascular events in Sibutraminetreated patients ,( Waseem R et al), Page- 2852


Successful pregnancy and delivery in a woman with achondroplasia,( Tasnim N et al), Page-146

Acute And Chronic Stroke

Progressive resistance training improving gait performance and mobility in acute and chronic stroke patients, (Qurat ul Ain et al), Page-140

Acute Ischaemic Stroke

Correlation of serum calcium with severity of acute ischaemic Stroke ,( Arshad A et al), Page-1882

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia

Treatment-related mortality in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in a low-middle income country ,(Rahat-Ul-Ain et al), Page-2373

Acute Phase Reactants

Association of acute phase reactants with prognostic scores in community acquired pneumonia ,( Ozkaya S et al), Page-614

Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of external auditory canal: A rare Disease ,(Vardag A B et al), Page-1893

Adult Psychopathology

Translation and adaptation of adult self report: A tool for assessment of adult psychopathology , ( Khan S et al), Page- 1133

Aesthetic Rehabilitation

Aesthetic rehabilitation in a patient with skeletal mandibular deficiency and open bite: journey from splinted metalloceramic prosthesis to all-ceramic crowns, ( Nazeer R et al), Page-159

Aesthetic Rehabilitation

Aesthetic rehabilitation with immediate implant placement in anterior maxilla after traumatic avulsive injury A case report ,(Umer F et al), Page-2464


AIDS-related deaths of children in Larkana district: Act now or regret later ,( Sharma N et al), Page-2694

Albendazole And Mebendazole

Albendazole and mebendazole in the treatment of ancylostomiasis in school children between the ages of 6-15 in Swat Pakistan ,( Iqbal M et al), Page-2058

Alexithymia And Anxiety Symptoms

Alexithymia and anxiety symptoms in Pakistani adolescents: A study of compounded directions , ( Jafar S et al), Page-1139

Allergic Fungal Sinusitis

Prevalence of allergic fungal sinusitis among patients with nasal polyposis ,( Dhanani R et al), Page-1605

Alpha Thalassemia

Frequency and genotyping of alpha thalassemia in individuals undergoing premarital screening,( Saboor M et al), Page-101

Alveolar Osteitis

Molecular events in the clinicopathological diagnosis of alveolar osteitis , (Zahid T et al), Page-508

Analgesic Effects

Comparison of analgesic effects of Gabapentin and Paracetamol postoperatively in patients with hand injury ,( Ali H et al), Page-2501


Perception of peer teaching on learning anatomy: A qualitative Study ,( Umbreen F et al), Page-744

Andibular Condylar Fracture

Assessment of complications of the open treatment of mandibular condylar fracture ,( Asim M A et al), Page-1689

Anterior Chest Wall Pilonidal Sinus

Anterior chest wall pilonidal sinus: Disease at a rare site ,( Soomro N et al), Page-1002

Anterior Resection Syndrome

An insight to medical therapy for anterior resection syndrome ,( Shakeel N et al), Page-1055

Anticancer Drugs

A call for revamping the policy on import process of anticancer drugs in Pakistan ,(Elahi E et al), Page-2483

Antidepressant Drugs

To evaluate the effects of antidepressant drugs on pregnancy outcomes in a university hospital in Turkey, ( Cavusoglu T et al) , Page-281

Antifungal Susceptibility

Distribution and antifungal susceptibility of candida species isolated from blood cultures ,( Gorgun S et al), Page-1601

Antimicrobial Susceptibility

Distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of bacterial and fungal pathogens isolated from burn wounds in hospitalized patients ,( Basit M et al), Page-916

Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor

Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor Encephalitis as a potential cause of worsening Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis , (Arif S et al), Page-569

Anti-Nuclear Anti-Dsdna And Anti-Ena

Frequencies and results of anti-nuclear anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA in a tertiary-care hospital in Karachi Pakistan ,( Kanani F H et al), Page-708

Aortic Valve

Study of aortic valve using multi slice computed tomography in patients presenting with chest pain ,( Nasir M et al), Page-2151

Aplastic Anaemia

Hepatitis-associated aplastic anaemia: A case report from a tertiary care facility of Pakistan, ( Alam L et al) , Page-376


Aquaporins; systemic functional and therapeutic correlations in health and disease , ( Ahmed T et al), Page-1228 Arachidonic Acid-Induced Platelet


Stronger inhibitory effects of Ticagrelor plus aspirin compared with Clopidogrel plus aspirin on arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation in patients with acute coronary syndrome with PCI , (Dong Z et al), Page-540

Arteriovenous Malformation

Pregnancy after embolization for arteriovenous malformation: An uncommon successful outcome ,( Javed A et al), Page-1020

Artificial Intelligence

Dawn of artificial intelligence - Enable digital Pathology in Pakistan: A paradigm shift ,( Zehra T et al), Page-2683


Asthma severity identification from pulmonary acoustic signal for computerized decision support system,( Nabi F G et al), Page-41

Ataxia Telangiectasia

Patient with ataxia telangiectasia undergoing elective staging laparoscopy: A case report and literature review ,(Bashir M A et al), Page-2656

Atopic Dermatitis

Gut microbiome skin axis in the development of atopic dermatitis , ( Alghamdi H A et al), Page-1221

Auditory Brainstem Response

Auditory brainstem response: An overview of neurophysiological implications and clinical applications ,( Habib S H et al), Page-2230


Letter to the Editor: Autism: A deep insight , ( Tariq H S et al), Page-1314


Parent training for Autism Spectrum Disorder,( Ijaz S et al), Page-31

Autistic Traits

Emotional response bias autistic traits and paranormal beliefs in patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder ,( Ashraf A et al), Page-1596

Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

Autoimmune thyroid disease in diabetic children and adolescents: A single center study from south Punjabm ,( Khan W I et al), Page-1804

Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa

P arg102ser is a common Pde6� mutation causing autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in Pakistani families ,( Khan A A et al), Page-816

Autozygosity Mapping

Autozygosity mapping in consanguineous Pakistani families identifies nine nonoverlapping novel linkage intervals for autosomal recessive non-syndromic mental retardation ,(AR-NSMR),; shows genetic heterogeneity for AR-NSMR ,( Rehman S et al), Page-2250

Axillary Thoracotomy

Comparison of VATS and limited axillary thoracotomy in the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax: A crosssectional study , ( Kapicibasi H O), Page- 1107



Barocrinology,( Kalra S et al), Page-170

Basic Life Support

Student led outreach workshops to promote basic life support ,( Ahsin S et al), Page-1761

Bedside Index ,(BISAP)

Bedside index ,(BISAP), v/s Ranson scores in predicting mortality and severity in patients with acute pancreatitis ,( Kapadia N N et al), Page-1988


Is behaviourism really dead? A scoping review to document the presence of behaviourism in current medical education , ( Ansar A et al), Page-1214

Beta Thalassemia

Prevention programmes and prenatal diagnosis for beta thalassemia in Pakistan: A narrative review, ( Ghafoor M et al) , Page-326

Beta-Lactamase In Multidrug-Resistant

Acinetobacter Baumannii

Phenotypic detection of extendedspectrum beta-lactamase in multidrugresistant acinetobacter baumannii isolated in Fauji Foundation Hospital Rawalpindi , ( Shah A A et al), Page-1144

Big Data Analytics

Big data analytics: A promising healthcare solution ,( Zil-E-Ali A et al), Page-2108

Bilateral Arm Training

Effects of bilateral arm training on upper extremity function in right and left hemispheric stroke, ( Ambreen H et al) , Page-302

Bilateral Congenital Pseudarthrosis

Bilateral congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia with neurofibromatosis type 1,(Ari B et al), Page-1499

Bilateral Diffuse Anterior Scleritis

Bilateral diffuse anterior scleritis after unilateral cataract surgery: A case report ,( Matsuura K et al), Page-1014

Bilateral Thalamic Infarction

Bilateral thalamic infarction due to artery of Percheron occlusion: A case report ,( Shah M et al), Page-2817

Biliary Tract Carcinoma

The Role of K-Ras and P53 in Biliary Tract Carcinoma ,(Ahmad S et al), Page-2378

Bioevaluation Of Agro-Waste

Bioevaluation of agro-waste for postprandial glucose and insulin concentration in blood ,( Umbreen H et al), Page-830

Bipolar Disorder

Endoxifen: A new hope for Bipolar Disorder ,( Amin M et al), Page-2685

Blaoxa-23 Gene And Blaoxa-51 Gene

Molecular detection of blaOXA-23 gene and blaOXA-51 gene in carbapenem resistant strains of Acinetobacterbaumannii in patients with ventilator associated pneumonia at tertiary care hospitals ,( Ishtiaq S et al), Page-2576

Bleomycin Toxicity

Bleomycin Toxicity — Findings on FDG PET CT ,( Mufty S et al), Page-2287

Blood Clotting With Viral Vector Vaccine

Managing blood clotting with viral vector vaccine ,( Bukhari M H et al), Page-2115

Blood Products

Utilisation of blood products at a centre in Pakistan Is donating better than wasting?( Haya Ul Mujtaba et al), Page-133

Body Mass Index

Relationship of BMI with Junk Food, sleep pattern, exam performance and awareness about its ill health effects in healthy teenagers,( Tariq S et al), Page-59

Body Mass Index

A cross-sectional study of body mass index and sleep quality as risk factors to severity of acne ,( Chaudhary S et al), Page-2148

Body Mass Index And Covid-19

Letter to the Editor: Interplay between body mass index and COVID-19, a harbinger of danger for Pakistan ,( Shuja S H et al), Page-2853

Bone Mineral Density

Association between handgrip strength and maximum expiratory flow with sitespecific bone mineral density of healthy young adults, (Tahir R et al), Page-178

Brain Tumour Surgeries

Role of intra-operative ultrasound in brain tumour surgeries ,( Bajwa M H et al), Page-1508

Breaking The Pain Cycle

Breaking the pain cycle successfully in a child with se-vere pain due to recurrent pancreatitis: A case report ,( Siddiqui A S et al), Page-2268

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer awareness among pharmacy and physiotherapy students of medical university Nawabshah, ( Irfan R et al) , Page-297

Breast Cancer

Changes in lung perfusion scintigraphy and pulmonary function tests in irradiated breast cancer patients ,( Elmas O et al), Page-1736

Breast Cancer

Demographic variation and risk factors regarding breast cancer among female in Southern Punjab Pakistan ,( Ahmad W et al), Page-1749

Breast Cancer

Evaluation of C-reactive protein in breast cancer by enzyme linked immunoassay technique , ( Usmani A et al), Page-424

Breast Cancer

Exploring the determinants of delayed diagnosis of breast cancer in the female population of Punjab ,(Pakistan), ,(Farooqi S et al), Page-2429

Breast Cancer

Persistent post-surgical pain following breast cancer surgery: An observational study in a tertiary care hospital ,( Siddiqui A S et al), Page-849

Breast Conservation Surgery ,(BCS),

Breast conservation surgery ,(BCS), for breast cancer in a resource limited country — Are we upto the challenge! ,( Javed N et al), Page-2748

Breast Sarcoma

Imaging features of primary breast sarcoma: A case report ,( Rehman S et al), Page-2087

Breast Self-Examination

Knowledge attitude and practice of breast self-examination among female undergraduate medical students in Poonch Medical College Azad Kashmir , (Javaeed A et al), Page-524


Frequency of early initiation of breastfeeding among women in Thatta Sindh and factors associated with it: A secondary data analysis ,( Barkat R et al), Page-2731

Bristow Procedure

Functional outcomes of modified Bristow procedure in recurrent shoulder dislocation ,(Khawaja K et al), Page-2448

Bronchoscopic Suction

Study of the effect of added bronchoscopic suction to routine treatment of ventilator associated pneumonia patients in surgical ICU ,( Karbasy S H et al), Page-1326

Bruininks-Oseretsky Test

Evaluating motor performance with the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of motor proficiency in impoverished Pakistani children ,( Hasan Z H et al), Page-1556

Budd-Chiari Syndrome

Budd-Chiari syndrome computed tomographic imaging: Elucidating the devil in the details ,( Siddique M et al), Page-1889


Meta-analysis of dose selection for budesonide in the treatment of Chinese patients with AECOPD ,( Qi M et al), Page- 2018

Burkitt’s Lymphoma Of Mandible

Burkitt’s lymphoma of mandible in a young Pakistani boy: A case report ,( Riaz N et al), Page-2265


Camel’s Milk

Medical benefits of camel’s milk: A comprehensive review ,(Al Nohair S F), Page-933

Cancer Diagnosis

Disclosing bad news of cancer diagnosis: Patients’ preference for Communication , ( Saqib S U et al), Page-1239

Cannabis Use Disorder

Negative coping styles among individuals with cannabis use disorder and non-users ,( Ahsan S et al), Page-1757


Effect of carbamazepine on emotional intelligence and mindfulness in patients with partial epilepsy , ( Gul A et al), Page- 1103

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Mortality rate associated with carbon monoxide poisoning in Turkey: A national database study, ( Temrel T A) , Page-262

Cardiac Anaesthesia

Quality assurance audit in adult cardiac anaesthesia ,( Ahmed S S et al), Page-704

Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

Clinical features, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings and outcome of patients with suspected myocarditis ,(Iqbal S et al), Page-2454

Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Clinical presentation diagnostic features on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and outcome of patients with cardiac amyloidosis presenting to a tertiary care setting ,( Sulta F A T et al), Page-2802

Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Features on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and accuracy of echocardiographic findings for diagnosing constrictive pericarditis ,(Iqbal S et al), Page-2652

Cardiorespiratory Fitness

Relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness with screen time and physical activity in adolescents ,( Shakeel A et al), Page-1785

Cardiovascular Disease

Association of dietary intake and dietary habits with risk of cardiovascular disease among immigrant Pakistanis living in the Netherlands, ( Raza Q et al) , Page-219

Cardiovascular Fitness

Level of cardiovascular fitness and it’s relationship with physical activity and body mass index in young adults of Islamabad ,(Khatoon Z et al), Page-1950

Cardiovascular Surgery

Dental care of patients scheduled for cardiovascular surgery: Which protocols should be followed? ,( Khan F R et al), Page-1875

Career Guidance

The effect of career guidance on undergraduate medical students’ specialty preferences ,( El Naggar M A et al), Page-1808

Carpal Tunnel

Anatomic study of carpal tunnel in adults using monoenergetic reconstruction of dual-energy computed tomography ,( Zhao H et al), Page-663

Cataract Extraction

To assess the role of cataract extraction in glaucoma management by its intraocular pressure lowering effect , ( Khan M I et al), Page-1100

Caudal Regression Syndrome

Case Report: Caudal Regression Syndrome - a rare congenital disorder: A case report ,( Mehdi S M et al), Page-2847

Causative Organisms

Risk factors, causative organisms and sensitivity patterns of infective keratitis in a tertiary care hospital in Rawalpindi ,( Rizwan A et al), Page-2735


A word of caution regarding Ceftriaxone ,( Azhar N et al), Page-2692

Ceftriaxone Resistance

Rapid detection of ceftriaxone resistance in clinical isolates of extensively drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi ,( Satti M L et al), Page-1639

Central Venous Port Catheter System

Our central venous port catheter system practice - a retrospective Study ,( Moralar D G et al), Page-1442

Ceramic Bearings

Outcome of Total Hip Replacement with Ceramic on Ceramic Bearings Case series from Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi Pakistan ,(Khattak M J et al), Page-2457

Cerebellar Diaschisis

Crossed Cerebellar diaschisis on F-18 FDG PET-CT scan: An unexpected finding ,( Mufty S et al), Page-1043

Cerebral Palsy Children

Effect of position on gross motor function and spasticity in spastic cerebral palsy children ,(Rauf W et al), Page-801

Cervical Vertebral Anomalies

Evaluation of the cervical vertebral anomalies in patients with cleft lip and palate in Aegean region of Turkey, ( Dogan E et al) , Page-215

Chikungunya Fever

Mucocutaneous manifestations of Chikungunya fever an experience of tertiary care hospital ,( Kaleem S et al), Page-619

Chikungunya Outbreak

Chikungunya outbreak in Karachi Pakistan 2016-2017: An analysis of viral isolates ,( Prakoso D et al), Page-1467

Chikungunya Virus Strains

Phylogenetic and sequencing analysis of Chikungunya virus strains from local Pakistani population ,(Sawal H A et al), Page-2335

Child Malnutrition

Major factors responsible for child malnutrition: A review ,( Shahid N et al), Page-729

Child Physical Abuse

Child physical abuse: awareness and practices of medical and dental doctors in Pakistan ,( Khan H M A et al), Page-1704

Chili Pepper

Letter to the Editor: Chili pepper; beneficial for cardiovascular health ,( Yasmin F et al), Page-1521


Frequency of gall bladder carcinoma in cholecystectomies performed for symptomatic cholelithiasis ,( Qudeer M A et al), Page-779

Choriocarcinoma Syndrome

Choriocarcinoma syndrome: A rare presentation of testicular germ cell tumour ,( Sindhu I I et al), Page-2090

Chronic Kidney Disease

Status of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Pakistan, ( Imtiaz S et al) , Page-336

Chronic Kidney Disease

Strategies for preventing end stage kidney disease: The impact of kidney stone disease on Chronic Kidney Disease in Pakistan ,( Imtiaz S et al), Page-2244

Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

Additional cytogenetic abnormalities in chronic myeloid leukaemia; an experience from Pakistan ,( Anwar N et al), Page-633

Chronic Pain

Increased frequency of fibromyalgia among patients with chronic pain presenting to internal medicine clinics of a tertiary care hospital: A cross sectional study ,( Javed S et al), Page-2740

Chronic Pain And Depression

The Link between Chronic Pain and Depression in Low Income Country Pakistan ,( Dawood S et al), Page-2535

Chronic Stroke

The effects of whole body vibration on gait after chronic stroke: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial ,( Burq H S I A et al), Page-2511

Clavien-Dindo Classification

A survey of perioperative complications with Clavien-Dindo classification: A crosssectional study , (Khan M T et al), Page-572

Clinical Education Competencies

Nursing instructors’ clinical education competencies: An integrated Review ,( Beiranvand S et al), Page-1458

Clinical Importance Of Embryology

Medical students’ attitudes towards the clinical importance of Embryology , ( Waseem N et al), Page-1167

Clinico-Pathological Conferences

Impact of the Clinico-pathological Conferences as a teaching modality on medical students’ performance in Endocrine Course ,(Barakzai M A), Page- 925

Cognitive Behaviour

Cognitive behaviour therapy with compulsive hoarding: a single case study, ( Yousaf A et al) , Page-356

Cognitive Impairment

A comparative study to investigate the level of cognitive impairment among epileptic and psychogenic non-epileptic patients , (Kausar N et al), Page-420

Cognitive Peer Coaching

“Cognitive Peer Coaching”- A workplace- based faculty development approach for problem- based learning facilitators: A qualitative study ,( Rehan M et al), Page- 868

Commercialism In Healthcare

From professionalism to commercialism in healthcare: A phenomenological study ,( Malik M H et al), Page-691

Community Pharmacist In Chronic Diseases

A snapshot of the global policies and practices of medicine use reviews by community pharmacist in chronic diseases: A narrative review ,( Mubarak N et al), Page-950

Community-Engaged Emergency

Overcoming the challenges of community-engaged emergency referrals in a rural district of Pakistan ,(Abbasi I N et al), Page-2648

Compliance Of Standard Precaution

Factors associated with the compliance of standard precaution; review article ,( Zeb S et al), Page-713

Computerized Tomography

Effectiveness and radiation dose of computerized tomography virtual hysterosalpingography in the evaluation of female infertility: Systematic review and meta-analysis,( Al-Tameemi, H N et al), Page-114

Connective Tissue Disease

Comparative analysis of connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis from a tertiary care centre in Pakistan ,(Zubairi A S et al), Page-2330

Conversion Disorder

Interpersonal problems optimism and coping styles among women with conversion disorder: A correlational study ,( Munir H A et al), Page-2717

Coping Strategies

Stress and coping strategies in parents of children with special needs ,( Arif A et al), Page-1369

Coping Strategies

The effective coping strategies against burnout: Perceptions of Pakistani medical students ,( Abbasi M et al), Page-1583

Core Muscle Strengthening

The effects of an exercise program for core muscle strengthening in patients with low back pain after cesarean-section: A single blind randomized controlled trial ,( Nayyab I et al), Page-1319

Coronary Artery Bypass

Effect of nurse led education on anxiety level among coronary artery bypass grafting pre-operative patients, ( Ali A et al) , Page-238

Coronary Artery Bypass

Assessment of risk factor profile in young patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology/National Institute of Heart Disease, a tertiary care cardiac facility,( Iqbal M et al), Page-98

Coronary Artery Disease

Almond protects the liver in coronary artery disease: A randomized controlled clinical trial,( Jamshed H et al), Page-791

Coronary Artery Disease

Frequency intensity and duration of routine rehabilitation exercises practiced by patients with coronary artery disease ,( Mubashar D et al), Page-1399

Counselling For Medical Student's

On-campus counselling for medical student's mental wellbeing: A pressing priority ,( Khan U et al), Page-2835

Covert Nail Injury

Covert nail injury to the back: A case report ,( Kathia U M et al), Page-1679


Covibesity — transitional pandemic ,( Anjum Q ), Page-2698

COVID 19 Surge

Threat of a Measles outbreak amidst COVID 19 surge in Sindh Pakistan ,(Ahmad Z et al), Page-2488

COVID Pandemic

Excessive Use of Azithromycin in Pakistan amidst the Covid Pandemic ,(Shaikh H), Page-2489


Contaminated oxygen cylinders for COVID-19 patients: A grave negligence? ,( Nasim S et al), Page-2839


COVID-19 amongst cancer patients: An experience from Oman ,( Jaffar Al-Bahrani B et al), Page-2563


COVID-19 and Obesity: When an Epidemic meets a Pandemic ,( Paracha A A ), Page- 2693


General practitioner’s ,(GP), home management guidelines for COVID-19 patients: Guidelines ,( Ambreen A et al), Page-982


Herbal smoke, aerosol and cologne may play a role as disinfectant against the COVID-19 battle ,( Khan S A M et al), Page-2836


India and Pakistan: United by COVID-19 ,( Fatima S S et al), Page-2695


The positive impact of COVID-19 on Tuberculosis endemic areas ,( Ali F et al), Page-2683

COVID-19 Pandemic

E-learning in postgraduate urology training: A Covid-19 pandemic experience ,( Hussain M et al), Page-2799

COVID-19 Pneumonia

Incidental COVID-19 pneumonia on oncologic 18F-FDG PET-CT scan in asymptomatic patient ,( Sajad T et al), Page-2834

COVID-19 Vaccine

Letter to the Editor: Rolling out COVID-19 vaccine: Half the battle Won ,( Adnan A et al), Page-1917

COVID-19 Vaccine

Medical and ethical issues related to COVID-19 vaccine ,( Bukhari M H), Page- 576


CRISPR, cell lines and organoids: New entrants in next generational lab medicine ,( Khan S H et al), Page-1714

CRISPR Cas System

CRISPR Cas System: An efficient tool for cancer modelling ,( Akhtar M et al), Page- 718

Culinary Happiness

Culinary happiness ,( Kalra S et al), Page- 1902

Cultivating Research Culture

Barriers in cultivating research culture at an institutional level: Narrative from a developing country ,( Khan F et al), Page- 1316


Inclusion of Research Methodology as a Major Subject in the Curriculum of Medical Studies in Pakistan ,( Iqbal U), Page-2294

Cushing Disease

To determine the efficacy of bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling in differentiating Cushing disease from ectopic Cushing syndrome,( Azeemuddin M et al), Page-164


D CD146 In Hydropic

ifferential expression of P63 P27 P57 Ki- 67 and CD146 in hydropic and molar pregnancies ,( Balci M et al), Page-796


Dapagliflozin: The outcome of it use as add-on therapy in real-life clinical setting ,( Raja U Y et al), Page-2214

DECAF ,(Dysponea Eosinopenia

Consolidation Acidaemia And Atrial


Comparison of DECAF ,(dysponea eosinopenia consolidation acidaemia and atrial fibrillation), and APACHE II ,(acute physiology and chronic health evaluation ii), scoring system to predict mortality among patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ,(Raja W et al), Page- 1935

Dental Implant Diameter

Impact of dental implant diameter on the efficiency of fatigue: A systematic review analysis ,( Hamed M T et al), Page-1644

Dental Implants

Recent advancements in surface modifications of dental implants ,( Iqbal A et al), Page-1655

Dental Recall Interval

Establishing dental recall interval for Pakistani children: A longitudinal Study ,( Taqi M et al), Page-1799


Association of depression with dental caries and periodontal disease at a tertiary care hospital ,( Kareem O et al), Page- 1345


Comparison of social support, depression and anger in diabetic and cardiac patients ,( Sadiq F et al), Page-1814

Depression In Adolescents

Family cohesion and depression in adolescents: A mediating role of selfconfidence ,( Zahra S T et al), Page-677

Depression, Anxiety And Stress

Association of myofascial trigger points in neck and shoulder region with depression, anxiety and stress among university students ,( Kashif M et al), Page-2139

Design And Health

Design and health: An interdisciplinary baseline experience of product design for health needs of the Chilean elderly , (Westermeyer J C B et al), Page-449


Endemic Syndromes associated with Diabetes – A call for Awareness recognition and management in India and beyond ,( Kalra S et al), Page-2093


Vitamin D and diabetes, ( Kalra S et al) , Page-383

Diabetes And Prediabetes

Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in district Swat Pakistan, ( Akhtar S et al) , Page-243

Diabetes Management

Introducing Diabetes Management in Primary Care ,(Kalra S et al), Page-2473

Diabetes Mellitus

Assessment of knowledge attitude and practice of Pakistani population about the risk factors causes complications and management of diabetes mellitus, ( Akash M S H et al) , Page-286

Diabetes Mellitus

Effects of structured exercise regime on lipid profile and renal function tests in gestational diabetes mellitus patients: pilot study , (Qazi W A et al), Page-505

Diabetic Foot Ulcers ,(DFUs)

Microbiological and antimicrobial pattern of diabetic foot ulcers ,(DFUs), at a tertiary care center in North East Punjab ,( Siddiqui M A et al), Page-1566

Diabetic Muscle

The diabetic muscle ,( Kalra S et al), Page- 1503

Diabetic Retinopathy

Awareness of diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients ,( Rizwan A et al), Page- 651

Diabetic Retinopathy

Screening for diabetic retinopathy in primary care: Future prospects in lowmiddle income countries ,( Kurian D E et al), Page-2826

Diastolic Blood Pressure

The association between diastolic blood pressure and massive transfusion in severe trauma: a retrospective singlecenter study , (Lee D H et al), Page-456

Dietary Factors On Iron Status

Effects of dietary factors on iron status and body mass index in students ,( Jamali N H et al), Page-2135

Digital Revolution

Surgery re-imagined: The digital revolution,(Rizvi I) , Page-184


Digitalisation provisions for controlling depression in developing countries: Short review, (Ali N A et al), Page-127

Distal Epiphyseal Radius Fracture

Should you fix again? An unusual fracture of a distal epiphyseal radius fracture — A case report ,( Kuyubasi S N et al), Page- 2258

Doctor Brides

‘Doctor Brides’: A narrative review of the barriers and enablers to women practising medicine in Pakistan ,( Qazi M A et al), Page-2237

Dowry Practices

Association of dowry practices with perceived marital life and intimate partner violence ,(Ali T S et al), Page-2298

Drug Dosage Calculation Among

Undergraduate Nursing Students

Retention of knowledge regarding mathematics and drug dosage calculation among undergraduate nursing students of a private school of nursing in Pakistan , ( Tabassum N et al), Page-1243

Drug Resistant Tuberculosis

Burden of Drug resistant Tuberculosis in newly diagnosed Tuberculosis patients of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan ,( Jabbar A et al), Page-912

Dry Needling In Lower Extremity Myofascial

Trigger Points

Effects of dry needling in lower extremity myofascial trigger points ,(Khan I et al), Page-2596

Dynamic Knee

Dynamic knee valgus alignment in healthy young adults and its association with single leg triple hop distance and athletic single leg stability ,( Ramzan J et al), Page-2687

Dyskeratosis Congenita

Dyskeratosis congenita: A case report on a rare disease ,( Khaliq S et al), Page-1007

Dysmorphic Features

Minor dysmorphic features in a patient with papillorenal syndrome: A Case Report ,( Kulali F et al), Page-1004


Eating Behaviours

Eating behaviours as predictors of satisfaction with food related life , (Wasif S et al), Page-469

Eccrine Spiradenoma:

Eccrine spiradenoma: a rare adnexal tumour with atypical presentation: A case report , ( Salim A et al), Page-553

ECOG Performance

Six-minute walk distance ECOG Performance Status and Modified Borg Scale scores in a cohort of Pakistani men and women with noncancerous end-stage liver disease selected for liver transplant , ( Ashraf K et al), Page-1162

Ectopic Parathyroid Adenoma

Extramedullary myeloma in ectopic parathyroid adenoma: A case Report ,( Barisik N O et al), Page-752

Ectopic Pregnancy

A ruptured seventeen weeks' ectopic pregnancy: A case report ,( Shabbir U et al), Page-763

Ectopically Erupting Permanent Molars

Management of ectopically erupting permanent molars in a seven-year-old girl: A case report ,( Meng M et al), Page-2809

Educational Intervention

Effectiveness of educational intervention in raising knowledge regarding breast cancer among female nurses ,( Razzaque M A et al), Page-1959

Emergency Medical Services ,(EMS),

Letter to the Editor: Need of the hour: Finding alternatives to a centralized Emergency Medical Services ,(EMS), system in Pakistan ,( Kazmi S K et al), Page-1914

Emergency Medicine

Innovation in emergency medicine; a perspective from a low middle income country Pakistan ,( Baig M N A et al), Page-734

Emotion Reactivity

Impingement of emotion reactivity to post-traumatic stress disorder among amputees ,( Babar I et al), Page-1341

Emotional Disturbances

Frequency of emotional disturbances among hostelites and day scholars medical students,( Jawed S et al), Page-73

Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence and academic performance of students ,( Rehman R et al), Page-2777

Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence as an indicator of coping skills among undergraduate dental students at Peshawar: A correlational study ,(Rehman B et al), Page-806


Research in vulnerable communities, a long journey from vulnerability to empowerment, (Asif F), Page-177

Endocrine Fatigue Syndrome

Endocrine Fatigue Syndrome , (Kalra S et al), Page-559

Endocrine First Aid

Endocrine first aid , ( Kalra S et al), Page- 1286

Endodontic Therapy

Reorienting goals in endodontic therapy: Pulp revitalisation on the brink of a paradigm shift ,( Iqbal A et al), Page-2589


Endoleaks: Current concepts and treatments ,( Rehman Z), Page-2224

Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy

Results of endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy: A prospective cohort study ,( Jawad A et al), Page-1420


Incidence of endophthalmitis following intravitreal anti VEGF injections at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan , ( Shaheen F et al), Page-1184

Endoscopic Retrograde

Demonstrating competence in Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancraticography ,(ERCP),: Recently credentialed operator’s performance for deep biliary cannulation over 1 year period from a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan ,( Parkash O et al), Page-929

Endovascular Coil Embolization

Endovascular coil embolization of ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms: review of a 15-year single center experience in Pakistan ,( Khan M K et al), Page-656

Endovascular Intervention

Endovascular intervention with a lowprofile visualized intraluminal support stent for ruptured very small widenecked intracranial aneurysms ,( Li J et al), Page-1972

Enteric Fever

Comparison of the performance of TubexR TF widal immunodiagnostic assay and blood culture in diagnosis of enteric fever in a private tertiary care hospital Peshawar Pakistan ,( Khan K A et al), Page-909

Eradication Therapy For Gastric Cancer

Eradication therapy for gastric cancer in Inner Mongolia: A singlecenter study over 10 years ,( Li Y H et al), Page-1822

Esophageal Foreign Body

Esophageal foreign body: Shirdan ,( Olmez S et al), Page-1050

Exercise Therapy

Exercise therapy for the exercise naive: The first step in obesity management ,( Kalra S et al), Page-2828


Effects of active isolated stretching on exercise-induced muscle damage in untrained subjects: a randomized controlled trial , (Qamar M M et al), Page- 406


Exer-gaming reduces fall risk and improves mobility after stroke ,( Aslam M et al), Page-1673


Task-oriented training and exer-gaming for improving mobility after stroke: A randomized trial, ( Malik A N et al) , Page- 186

Exosomes Derived Mirna In Cancer

The role of exosomes derived miRNA in cancer ,( Hussain S et al), Page-1856

Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy

Role of extracorporeal shockwave therapy in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy: synthetic analysis of last two decades ,( Fatima A et al), Page-1627


Factor V Leiden G1691A

Association of Factor V Leiden G1691A and Prothrombin gene G20210A mutations with adverse pregnancy outcomes ,( Ali S A et al), Page-1780

Faculty Development Programme Initiative

Evaluating the impact of faculty development programme initiative: Are we really improving skills in MCQ writing? ,(Kiran F et al), Page-2434

Faculty Retention

Strategies for improving faculty retention: A mixed-methods study in a private medical university in Karachi Pakistan ,( Zehra F et al), Page-2755

Female Graduate Students

KAP Study: Beliefs and knowledge of osteoporosis amongst female graduate students in Karachi Pakistan: A crosssectional study ,( Kamal S et al), Page- 1910

Fetal Hemoglobin

Modulatory effect of single nucleotide polymorphism in Xmn1 BCL11A and HBS1 L-MYB loci on fetal hemoglobin levels in ~- thalassemia major and lntermedia patients ,( Bashir S et al), Page-1394

Flow Replacement Cerebrovascular Bypass

Flow replacement cerebrovascular bypass in the management of skull base meningiomas ,( Bukhari S S et al), Page- 2831

Fodder cutter ,(Tokka), Injuries

Fodder cutter ,(Tokka), injuries: A preventable morbidity ,( Ali D et al), Page- 1022

Foetal Echocardiography

Research Article: Referral indications for foetal echocardiography in a low resource setting, ( Ladak A et al) , Page-390

Foreign Accent Syndrome?

What do we know about Foreign Accent Syndrome?, (Saquib J et al), Page183

Formula Milk

Letter to the Editor: Has Pakistan failed to ban the sale of formula milk? ,( Nakhuda A et al), Page-1522

From Past To Future

Time to move from past to future by making present creative: A Scoping review ,( Urooj U et al), Page-2623

FSHR Gene Polymorphisms

Association of FSHR gene polymorphisms with endometriosis in women visiting tertiary-care hospitals of Lahore Pakistan , ( Liaqat I et al), Page-1118


Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia , (GAVE),

Successful treatment of refractory Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia , (GAVE), in a cirrhotic patient with transcatheter arterial embolisation in a tertiary care facility in Pakistan: A case report , ( Alam L et al), Page-1263

Gastric Volvulus

Gastric volvulus in adults in a tertiary care hospital Karachi Pakistan: A case series , ( Parkash O et al), Page-1277

Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine


Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: Clinicopathological evaluation at Shifa International Hospital Islamabad ,  (Mamoon N et al), Page-492


Estimates of gelotophobia and perceived stress among obese individuals, (Akhtar et al), Page-81

Gene Polymorphism

Correlation of C-reactive protein levels gene polymorphism and platelets count in Dengue infection , ( Shamshad S et al), Page-429

Generation Gaps

Generation gaps in medical education: An exploratory qualitative Study ,( Murakami M et al), Page-1476

Genetic Reprogramming

Genetic reprogramming of cord blood derived endothelial colony forming cells towards human induced pluripotent stem cells using episomal plasmids , ( Shahid O et al), Page-1081

Genezalised Lymphadenopathy

Genezalised lymphadenopathy in a patient with fever of unknown origin as a differential diagnostic challenge - case report ,( Markovic S S et al), Page-1489

Gingival Biotype

 Comparison of gingival biotype in smokeless tobacco users ,(Gutka and Paan), and non-tobacco users ,( Moorpani P et al), Page-1561


Management of paediatric glioblastoma, ( Pervez W et al) , Page-385


Nanomedicine in the treatment of Glioblastoma ,( Jafri S K K e al), Page-2678


Post-operative seizure control in patients with glioblastoma ,( Hani U et al), Page- 1698

Glucocorticoids For Premature Labor

Letter to the Editor: Glucocorticoids for premature labor in low resource countries: Is the debate over? ,( Saleem A et al), Page-2292

Gluten-Free Diet

The impact of a gluten-free diet on the growth pattern of Saudi children with celiac disease ,( Saadah O I), Page-1388

Glycaemic Compass

The glycaemic compass: Time in range , (Kalra S et al), Page-562

Glycaemic Hygiene

Glycaemic hygiene ,( Kalra S et al), Page- 2823

Glycated Haemoglobin

Glycated haemoglobin association with severity of thrombus burden in nondiabetic versus diabetic patients with STelevation myocardial infarction ,(Shah G A et al), Page-2355


Beyond GnRH LH and FSH: The role of kisspeptin on hypothalalmic-pituitary gonadal ,(HPG), axis pathology and diagnostic consideration ,( Khan S H et al), Page-1862


A comprehensive review on gout: The epidemiological trends pathophysiology clinical presentation diagnosis and treatment , ( Ashiq K et al), Page-1234

Graves’ Disease

Patient centred choice of anti-thyroid drugs in the treatment of graves’ disease ,( Kalra S et al), Page-769

Guillain-Barre Syndrome , (GBS),

Sensory symptoms on admission as a predictor of respiratory insufficiency in patients of Guillain-Barre Syndrome , (GBS), , ( Aslam A et al), Page-446

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

Study of Guillain-Barre syndrome etiology in Pakistani patients ,(Iqbal R et al), Page- 2539



Recurrent formation of haematocolpos in a young girl with multiple congenital anomalies of the urogenital tract ,( Rana M Y et al), Page-1017


Is haemodialysis the most feasible dialysis modality for Pakistan? , (Imtiaz S et al), Page-528


Frequency and types of haemoglobinopathies in children with microcytic Anaemia,( Khan S A et al), Page-78

Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome

Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome and its treatment: A case report ,( Khan A A et al), Page-1496

Hand Hygiene

Perspective of health professionals on hand hygiene in a tertiary care center in Pakistan,( Bari A et al), Page-110


Knowledge and practices regarding handwashing among mothers of children less than five years of age in rural areas of District Sialkot,( Almas S et al), Page-105

Harmonic Scalpel

Comparison of harmonic scalpel versus Milligan Morgan technique in haemorrhoidectomy patients ,(Ahmed M et al), Page-2369

Health Education

Effect of health education on awareness and practices of breast self-examination among females attending a charitable hospital at North Karachi ,( Jabeen Z et al), Page-2156

Health In Environment

Health in environment: reduce surgical site infections by applying Florence nightingale’s environmental theory , ( Rana A), Page-547

Health Insurance

Health insurance acceptance of female labour force: A special focus on reproductive health , ( AmanUllah M et al), Page-1089

Healthcare Facilities

Barriers to efficient provision of healthcare facilities: An experience from a developing country ,(Musharraf F F et al), Page-2487

Healthcare Professionals

Linkage between performance of healthcare professionals and management practices in health care organizations ,( Bibi M), Page- 725

Health-Related Pilot Projects

Factors affecting successful scale-up of health-related pilot projects , (Ashraf M et al), Page-518

Hearing Impairment In Children

Frequency of hearing impairment in children between the ages of 2 and 10 years with middle ear infection ,( Munir S B et al), Page-1662

Heller's Cardiomyotomy

Resolution of symptoms after Heller's cardiomyotomy with DOR fundoplication versus endoscopic balloon dilatation in patients with achalasia Cardia at tertiary care hospital ,( Qureshi S et al), Page-2321


Assessment of nutritional status of hemodialysis patients by subjective global assessment score: A single centre study from Karachi Pakistan ,( Ghazi L et al), Page-2761

Hepatic Venous Pressure

Is it necessary to measure hepatic venous pressure gradient before liver resection in cirrhotic patients? A single center audit , (Bari H et al), Page-489

Hepatic Venous Pressure

Is it necessary to measure hepatic venous pressure gradient before liver resection in cirrhotic patients? A single center audit ,( Kumar S et al), Page-893

Hepatitis B

Predicting 90-day mortality at admission and 7 days post-admission among patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure, (Riaz Q et al), Page-22

Hepatitis B

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Human Immunodeficiency Virus syphilis and malaria among blood donors at tertiary care hospital blood bank ,( Qadir H et al), Page-897

Hepatitis B Virus

Molecular characterization of hepatitis B virus basal core promoter and precore region of isolates from chronic hepatitis B patients ,( Ahmad I et al), Page-1575

Hepatitis C Virus

Mandatory multidisciplinary management of hepatocellular carcinoma: Need of the hour in a country with high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection ,( Khan M R et al), Page-1455

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

A year of hepatocellular carcinoma at a glance Demographics biochemical and radiological characteristics and treatment modalities from a specialized facility of Pakistan ,( Alam L ), Page-1849

Heterotrophic Calcification

Heterotrophic calcification of medial collateral ligament of knee joint: A case report ,( Amin I et al), Page-756

HFE Gene Polymorphism

Lack of association of HFE gene polymorphism with high body iron status in Pakistani patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ,( Muhammad J S et al), Page- 608

High Bleeding Risk

Frequency of high bleeding risk in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention ,( Mahmood M M et al), Page-2186

Hip Dysplasia

Anatomical parameters of and differences in the proximal femoral cavity in adult patients with developmental hip dysplasia ,( Zhao R et al), Page-2700

Hip Replacement

Hip replacement for femur neck fracture in the elderly effects of delayed surgical intervention on morbidity and mortality a retrospective comparative study ,( Habib A A et al), Page-2255

History Taking

Care by the Ear: The increasing role of history taking ,( Kalra S et al), Page-2674

HIV Infected Transsexuals

Epstein - Barr virus epidemiology in HIV infected transsexuals ,( Salahuddin S et al), Page-1984


Cost estimation of a school-based intervention for improving HIV/AIDS risk perception among secondary school adolescents in Enugu State Nigeria ,(Eneogu N D et al), Page-2052


Stress-related growth of HIV/AIDS patients: Role of religion and selfesteem in mitigating perceived discrimination ,( Maqsood F et al), Page-1545

Hoarding Disorder

Estimates and demographic correlates of hoarding disorder in non-clinical sample in Pakistan , (Inam A et al), Page-417

Hodgkin Lymphoma

Outcome of first relapse of Hodgkin lymphoma: single institution experience ,( Shaheen N et al), Page-883

Hospitals Health Promotive

Making hospitals health promotive ,( Bhamani S et al), Page-2117

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Obstetric outcomes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive mothers in tertiary care hospital,( Tarar S H et al), Page-69

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Translation and cross language validation of human immunodeficiency virus stigma scale in a Pakistani context ,( Nayyer F et al), Page-1768

Human Papilloma Virus

A case report of synchronous bilateral tonsillar carcinoma associated with human papilloma virus, ( Tamagawa S et al) , Page-352


Hydroxyapatite, a potent agent to reduce dentin hypersensitivity ,(Gul H et al), Page-2604

Hypermobility Among Children

Hypermobility among children with autism spectrum disorders and its correlation with anthropometric characteristics , ( Tedla J S et al), Page- 1076

Hypertrophic Olivary Degeneration

Hypertrophic olivary degeneration following cerebral trauma managed with rehabilitation — A case report , ( Zhou J et al), Page-1252


Association between hyperuricaemia and clinical pathological characteristics of patients with IgA nephropathy ,( Lu L et al), Page-1930


Iatrogenic Intra-Spinal Subdural Haematoma

Iatrogenic intra-spinal subdural haematoma: An exceptionally rare phenomenon , ( Ahmad W et al), Page- 1290

Immunodeficiency Virus

Challenges of Antiretroviral Treatment for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Pakistan,(Shah S Al et al), Page-788

Implants Among Women

Knowledge attitude and practices regarding implants among women of childbearing age ,( Shaikh I B et al), Page- 993

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Very early onset inflammatory bowel disease: Spectrum of clinical presentation diagnostic tools and outcome in children ,(Cheema H A et al), Page-2350

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

The cumulative effects of MEFV gene polymorphisms and mutations in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases , (Agin M et al), Page-479

Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumour

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of genitourinary system ,(Nauman M et al), Page-2467

Informed Consent Practices

Informed consent practices in oral and maxillofacial surgery setups — an audit report , ( Shah I et al), Page-1197

Infra-Inguinal Bypass

Frequency of limb salvage after infrainguinal bypass for chronic limbthreatening ischaemia in diabetics: A retrospective study ,(Rehman Z), Page- 1885

Inguinal Swelling

Painful irreducible inguinal swelling: A rare presentation of retroperitoneal venous malformation in a boy — A case report ,( Azhar M et al), Page-2275

Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization

Instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization- an emerging trend for soft tissue dysfunction ,( Mahmood T et al), Page-977

Insulin Delivery Devices

Person-friendly insulin delivery devices ,( Kalra S et al), Page-1039

Insulin Stewardship

Insulin stewardship for inpatient hyperglycaemia, ( Lathia T et al) , Page- 379

Integrated Curriculum

Medical students’ perceptions of their educational environment in an integrated curriculum in Saudi Arabia ,( Altamimi T et al), Page-672

Intellectual Disability

Child with intellectual disability misdiagnosed as autism: A case study ,( Farooqi S et al), Page-2077

Intercultural Sensitivity

The intercultural sensitivity levels of primary health care workers in a city in Eastern Turkey ,( Cifci S et al), Page-2554

Interferon Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent


Clinical application evaluation and analysis of influencing factors analysis of on tuberculosis ?-Interferon enzymelinked immunosorbent assay ,( Xu N et al), Page-2543

Interleukin-1 Receptor

Association study of interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase 1 rs3027898 A/C gene polymorphism and preeclampsia in Pakistani population ,( Mahmood A et al), Page-1332

Internet Addiction

Frequency and risk factors of internet addiction in medical students: A crosssectional study ,( Ehsan A et al), Page- 2111

Intestinal Helminthic Infections

Association between intestinal helminthic infections and anaemia status in preschool children in the district Skardu of Pakistan ,(Afridi M F et al), Page-2309

Intestinal Obstruction

A case report of abdominal sponge in ileum in a patient with intestinal obstruction, ( Ammar A S ) , Page-373

Intimate Partner Violence

Global surge in intimate partner violence after mandatory lockdown: Implications for Pakistan ,( Hisam B et al), Page-780

Intracranial Ependymoma

Management of pediatric intracranial ependymoma , ( Jafri S K K et al), Page- 1288

Intracranial Haemangiopericytomas

Management of Intracranial Haemangiopericytomas ,( Ahmad N et al), Page-1041

Intramedullary Spinal Cord Lesions

Intramedullary spinal cord lesions in children ,( Hani U et al), Page-775

Intravenous Drug Abusers

Intravenous drug abusers presenting with pseudoaneurysm and other surgical complications in Pakistan , (Qudeer M A et al), Page-556

Intravenous Infusions

Infiltration and extravasation of intravenous infusions in childrenvalue of high-quality care on outcome , ( Litao H et al), Page-1181

Is Peer Assisted Learning

Is Peer assisted learning better? A modern question to answer: A comparative study ,(Khan K W et al), Page-1940

Ischaemic Modified Albumin

Is ischaemic modified albumin a marker in osteomyelitis patients? ,( Yazici C M et al), Page-1592

Ischemic Electrocardiographic Changes

Prognostic significance of ischemic electrocardiographic changes during stress testing in patients with normal nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging ,( Adnan G et al), Page-1745


Ivabradine effects on heart rate and quality of life among chronic heart failure patients,( Farooq F et al), Page-86


Journey Of Enlightenment

The Journey of Enlightenment ,( Ashraf M), Page-1921


Kangaroo Mother Care

The effect of kangaroo mother care applied to the healthy newborns in the early postpartum period on breastfeeding: A randomized controlled trial ,( Oksuz S K et al), Page-2124

Kidney Disease

Trends in prescribing patterns and drug related problems of kidney disease patients ,( Yameen M A et al), Page-2629

Kill Two Birds

To kill two birds with stone ,( Ahmad S et al), Page-1909

Knee Osteoarthritis

Effects of biodex balance training on symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in Rawalpindi: A randomized control trial , ( Javed S et al), Page-402

Knee Osteoarthritis

The association among perception of osteoarthritis with adverse pain anxiety symptoms of depression positive and negative affects in patients with knee osteoarthritis: A cross sectional study ,( Aqeel M et al), Page-645

Knee Osteoarthritis

Walking related performance fatigability in persons with knee osteoarthritis; an important yet neglected outcome ,( Osama M et al), Page-1513

Kolb's Learning Style Inventory

Assessing learning styles of medical students using Kolb's learning style inventory and their association with preferred teaching methodologies , ( Hydrie M Z I et al), Page-1157


Lanthanide Fluorescence Immunoassay

Diagnostic evaluation of heel prick newborn screening of thyroid stimulating hormone on dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay with the establishment of reference value in Pakistani neonates, ( Raza A et al) , Page-191

Laparoscopic Experience

Is laparoscopic experience helpful in simulator based robotic training in general surgery?,( Ghazanfar S et al), Page-2198

Laryngeal Mask Airway Insertion

Are there predictive tests that determine the difficulty in Laryngeal Mask Airway Insertion? , ( Kucukosman G et al), Page- 434

Laughter Therapy In Diabetes

Laughter therapy in diabetes ,( Kumar V R et al), Page-1696

Learning Disorder

Specific learning disorder among primary school children of Sarai , ( Kausar N et al), Page-1193

Left Sided Appendicitis

Left sided appendicitis — a surgical dilemma: Case report ,( Mushtaq Z et al), Page-1483

Lepra Reactions

Lepra reactions in new leprosy cases at diagnosis: A study of 50 Pakistani patients ,( Ghafoor R et al), Page-838

Lepra Reactions

Lepra reactions: A study of 130 cases from Pakistan ,(Tabassum S et al), Page-2317

Limb Amputations

Predictors of lower limb amputations in patients with diabetic foot ulcers presented in a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan ,(Ammar A S et al), Page-2163

Liver Function Tests

Role of C- reactive proteins and liver function tests in assessing the severity of dengue fever ,( Khetpal A et al), Page-810

Low Back Pain

Frequency of low back pain in young adults and its relationship with different mattresses ,( Muazzam M R et al), Page- 2177

Low Dose Ultrasound

A comparison of low dose ultrasound and far-infrared therapies in patients with mechanical neck pain, ( Abousenna M M H S et al), Page-397

Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

Assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms among calcium channel blocker-users and its impact on quality of life ,( Salman M et al), Page-1384

Lung Cancer

Clinical analysis of 125I seed implantation combined with Apatinib in the treatment of locally advanced lung cancer: A case series ,( Feng Y et al), Page-1025

Lung Ultrasound And Chest X-Rays

Accuracy of lung ultrasound and chest Xrays in diagnosing acute pulmonary oedema in patients presenting with acute dyspnoea in emergency department ,(Ghauri S K et al), Page-2423


LUSPATERCEPT – a better strategy for thalassemia? ,( Qadeer M A et al), Page- 2107


Effect of structured training program on arm dysfunction, lymphoedema and quality of life after breast cancer surgery ,( Bozdemir H et al), Page-1413


Lymphoma involving the brain and adrenals: A chicken and egg Situation ,( Zafar T et al), Page-778

Lymphoma First Approach

Synchronous primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report highlighting “Lymphoma first approach” ,( Dhanani R et al), Page-2083


Macular Ganglion

Evaluation of practices of macular ganglion cell complex scan in early detection of glaucoma, (Aslam K et al), Page-130

Macular Hole

Spontaneous closure of full thickness macular hole in the presence of an epiretinal membrane in a vitrectomised eye: A case report ,( Siddiqui R et al), Page- 2262

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Of Orbits

Diagnostic accuracy of B-scan in predicting retinoblastoma in children taking Magnetic Resonance Imaging of orbits as gold standard, ( Murad S et al) , Page-349

Maladaptive Schema

Maladaptive schema modes as the predictor of post-traumatic stress disorder among trauma survivors ,( Zaman S et al), Page-1789

Management Of Difficult Airway

Management of difficult airway in a pregnant patient with severely reduced mouth opening ,( Shamim F et al), Page- 1011

Maple Syrup Urine Disease

Case Series: Maple syrup urine disease: magnetic resonance imaging findings in three patients , ( Allahwala A et al), Page- 1309

Materials Used In Dentistry

Patient's perspective and awareness of materials used in dentistry , ( Sajid M et al), Page-1171

Maternal Attitudes

Influence of maternal attitudes and parenting style on children`s dental caries experience ,(Abbasoglu Z et al), Page- 2325

Maternal Depression

Maternal depression and its correlates: A longitudinal study ,( Tariq N et al), Page- 1618

Maternal Near Miss

Maternal near miss, mortality and their correlates at tertiary care Hospital ,( Wasim T et al), Page-1843

Maternal Tolerance

Effect of maternal tolerance on behavioural problems in children with Enuresis ,( Munawar M et al), Page-1551


Factors affecting Maternal-care during labour at maternity centres of Karachi Pakistan: Exploratory study ,( Shahzaib N et al), Page-2061

Maxillary Ectopic Canine

Frequency and association of maxillary ectopic canine with incisor root resorption and dental agenesis, ( Nagani N I et al) , Page-277

Maxillary Posterior Teeth

A CBCT based evaluation of root proximity of maxillary posterior teeth to sinus floor in a subset of Pakistani population ,( Motiwala M A et al), Page-1992

Maxillary Protraction

Effects of different types of maxillary protraction on maxilla with finite element analysis ,( Buyukcavus M H et al), Page- 877

Maxillofacial Prosthodontists

Maxillofacial prosthodontists are needed for the rehabilitation of patients with congenital and acquired craniofacial defects ,(Kazmi S M R et al), Page-1671


Risk factors for mortality among admitted children with complications of measles in Pakistan: An observational study , (Aurangzeb B et al), Page-497


Trend of measles in Turkey: A retrospective secondary data analysis ,( Sahinoz T et al), Page-1527

Medical Social Work in Healthcare

Nature and scope of Medical Social Work in Healthcare setting in Pakistan ,(Sajid I et al), Page-2385

Medication Adherence

Determinants of medication adherence in patients with HIV: Application of the health belief model ,( Ashraf M et al), Page-1409

Memory Recall

Difference in memory recall among medical students after reading printed text ,(hard copy), vs on screen text ,(soft copy), ,( Mehnaz A et al), Page-1450


Memoryporosis: Dementia in primary care diabetology ,( Kalra S et al), Page-772

Menstrual Hygiene

Poor menstrual hygiene management: An adverse outcome of menstrual stigmatisation in Pakistan ,( Mustafa R M et al), Page-1712

Mental Disorders

Effects of drug abuse and mental disorders on oral health: A case report ,( Magdaleno M O et al), Page-2820

Mental Health Consequences

Moderation role of proactive coping between psychological place attachment and its mental health consequences in sojourners ,( Akbar R M et al), Page-2531

Mental Health Issues

The mental health issues of eunuchs in the context of social exclusion ,( Bibi R et al), Page-578

Mental Health Problems

Role of religiosity, optimism, demographic characteristics and mental health problems among cancer patients ,( Abbas Q et al), Page-859

Mental Imagery Technique

Effects of mental imagery technique in addition to conventional physical therapy to improve hand functions in chronic stroke patients ,(Mubeen I et al), Page- 1944

Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Merkel cell carcinoma of the gluteal region: A rare case report and literature review , ( Corapli M et al), Page-1273

Mesenteric Inflammatory Veno-Occlusive


Mesenteric inflammatory veno-occlusive disease: what is it and why it is important to know it? ,( Zia- Ur- Rehman), Page-2840

Meta-Analysis Of Diabetes Mellitus

Meta-analysis of diabetes mellitus prevalence among tuberculosis patients in Asia and Africa , ( Nawaz H et al), Page- 1200

Metabolic Optimization In Diabetes

Metabolic optimization in diabetes: A hierarchial model ,( Kalra S et al), Page- 1506

Metabolic Syndrome

Association between hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha rs11549465 ,(1772 C>T), polymorphism and metabolic syndrome ,( Zafar U et al), Page-1832

Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome in Children: An emerging Epidemic , ( Ishaque A), Page- 396

Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate


Tc-99m PSMA and Lu-177 PSMA Theranostic Pair in a Patient of Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer ,( Sheikh N et al), Page-2479

Metastatic Pancreatic Carcinoma

Unusual presentation of metastatic pancreatic carcinoma ,( Salahuddin M K et al), Page-1493

Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus


In vitro efficacy of Daptomycin against clinical isolates of Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) , ( Shah A A et al) , Page-338

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus


Effect of ablution on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,(MRSA), nasal colonisation in healthcare workers ,( Shoaib N F et al), Page-1472

Metronidazole And Amoxicillin

Prevention of dry socket in mandibular 3rd molars with single preoperative oral dose of metronidazole and amoxicillin compared to conventional therapy ,( Khooharo T S et al), Page-585

MicroRNA miR-425

MicroRNA miR-425 inhibits proliferation and migration of colorectal cancer HCT116 cells ,( Zhou H et al), Page-2167


Safety of balanced propofol and midazolam in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for sedation in cirrhotic patients,( Alam L et al), Page-64

Midazolam And Diazepam

A comparison of intravenous midazolam and diazepam in management of status epilepticus in children ,(Kazmi A et al), Page-640


Prevalence triggers and presentation of migraine among the college and university students: Review of the available literature ,( Javaid Q ), Page-2617

MIR-146A Gene Polymorphism

Association of miR-146a gene polymorphism and expression levels of its target protein RhoA in Pakistani breast cancer patients ,( Rahim A et al), Page-686


Expression levels of MiRNA-16, SURVIVIN and TP53 in Preeclamptic and Normotensive women ,( Ali Z et al), Page- 2208

Mobilization With Movement

Comparison of mobilization with movement and Mulligan knee taping on Patellofemoral pain syndrome ,( Rehman M et al), Page-2119

Modular Curriculum

Knowledge scores in annual and modular curriculum among medical students from Karachi Pakistan ,( Uneeb S N et al), Page-681

Molecular Genetics Of UV-Sensitive


The molecular genetics of UV-Sensitive syndrome: A rare dermal anomaly ,( Muzammal M et al), Page-2391

Morphometric Measurement

Distinctive morphometric measurement of frontal sinuses among the female ethnic populations living in Karachi ,( Javaid Q et al), Page-1725

Mothers’ Nutritional Status

Correlates of mothers’ nutritional status in developing economies: Evidence from demographic and health surveys ,( Soharwardi M A et al), Page-2065

Motivational Interviewing

Effects of motivational interviewing with conventional physical therapy on rehabilitation of chronic musculoskeletal disorders: A quasi-experimental study , (Jamil A et al), Page-1123

Motivation-Opportunity-Capability Model

The motivation-opportunity-capability model of behavioural therapy — the vital component of effective patient centric obesity management ,( Kalra S et al), Page-1900

Mucocoele Of The Appendix

Mucocoele of the appendix: A case report , ( Farooqui F et al), Page-1260

Mullerian Duct Anomaly

The accessory fallopian tube a rare Mullerian duct anomaly: Two case report, ( Kale I) , Page-370

Mulligan Mobilization

Comparing the effectiveness of Mulligan mobilization versus Cyriax pproach in the management of patients with subacute lateral epicondylitis, (Ahmed A et al),Page-12

Mulligan Mobilization

Effectiveness of mulligan mobilization and kinesio-taping technique on the anterior innominate dysfunction in females ,( Farooq S et al), Page-1716

Multicoagulant Resistant


Multicoagulant resistant pseudothrombocytopenia ,( Waseem N et al), Page-2247

Multiple Myeloma

Central nervous system involvement in Multiple Myeloma—Diagnosis treatment and outcome: A case report ,(Ali M U et al), Page-2659

Muscle Dysmorphia

Drive for muscularity and tendencies of muscle dysmorphia among Pakistani bodybuilders: A prevalence study ,(Bashir U et al), Page-1350

Muscle Energy Technique

Comparison of effectiveness of muscle energy technique with Mulligan mobilization in patients with non-specific neck pain ,( Manzoor A et al), Page-1532

Musculoskeletal Disorders

Impact of musculoskeletal disorders on quality of life of patients visiting tertiary care hospital ,( Khalid S et al), Page-1976

Myeloid Sarcoma

Myeloid Sarcoma — a diagnostic challenge in paediatric practice ,( Nageen T et al), Page-2806

Myeloperoxidase: Indicator Of

Cardiovascular Disease

Myeloperoxidase: Indicator of cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease patients of tertiary care hospital of Karachi , ( Noor S et al), Page-1128


Nasal Chondromyxoid Fibroma

Case report of a female child with right nasal chondromyxoid Fibroma ,( Ahmed Z et al), Page-1897

NAT2 Gene Polymorphism

Association study of NAT2 gene polymorphism and risk of oral cancer in Southern Punjab Pakistan ,(Imam H et al), Page-1954

Natural Herbs

Natural herbs: A potential treatment option for diabetes and associated neuropsychological deficits , ( Ahmad S et al), Page-1292


Comparison of 3% saline and 0 9% normal saline nebulization as diluent in children with bronchiolitis ,( Sapkota S et al), Page- 822

Neonatal Life Support ,(NeoLiS)

Improvement in knowledge of healthcare professionals attending Neonatal Life Support ,(NeoLiS), training workshop ,( Munir Z et al), Page-1996

Neonatal Mortality

Differentials and determinants of neonatal mortality in Pakistan: A cross sectional analysis; Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey ,(2017-18), ,( Kamal A et al), Page-900

Neonatal Parotitis

Neonatal Parotitis: A case report ,( Khan N et al), Page-1682


Nephrolithiasis: What role a nephrologist can play in prevention and Management ,( Naqvi R), Page-2296

Nervous System Tumours or CNS Tumours

Role of Preoperative Embolization in Management of Central Nervous System Tumours, (Ummey Hani et al), Page-172

Neural tube defects

Neural tube defects, their implications and solutions in Muslim society,( Fayyaz M et al), Page-156

Neuroendocrine Tumour

Neuroendocrine tumour of the ampulla of Vater: A rare neoplasm at an atypical site ,( Zahid A et al), Page-1486

Neuroendocrine Tumour

Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumour: A rare entity — multimodal approach for diagnosis and management,( Bari H et al), Page-150

Neuro-Oncology Tumour Boards

Role of multidisciplinary neuro-oncology tumour boards in cancer Management ,( Bajwa M H et al), Page-2285

Neuropsychological Functioning

Neuropsychological functioning in children with and without specific learning disorder ,( Mufti S et al), Page- 629


Audit: Improvement in the quality of patient notes: A report of a closed loop audit quality improvement project at a neurosurgical department in Pakistan ,( Ashraf M et al), Page-1515

Next Generation Sequencing

Next generation sequencing detection in archival surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma specimens harbouring the anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion protein , (Jiang Z et al), Page-531

Nomophobia On Anxiety

Effects of nomophobia on anxiety stress and depression among Saudi medical students in Jeddah Saudi Arabia ,( Bano N et al), Page-854

Non ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarct

Role of heart fatty acid binding protein in early detection of non ST-elevation myocardial infarct and its comparison with other cardiac markers, ( Habib S M S et al) , Page-233

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver

The frequency of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in non-obese young medical professionals ,( Aziz B et al), Page-1878

Non-Scholastic Skills

Assessment of non-scholastic skills ,(nonclinical), in trainee residents ,(Husnain A et al), Page- 2397

Notch Signaling

Notch Signaling & MicroRNAs - two tumblers of neurogenesis and Gliomas, ( Javed Z et al) , Page-310

Novel Definition Of Health

A novel definition of health: Crafting a contemporary classic ,( Kalra S et al), Page-2490

Nursing Education

Phasing out diploma in nursing: Merits and implications on nursing education in Pakistan ,( Khuwaja H M A), Page-1047

Nutrition In Cirrhosis

Knowledge and clinical practices of medical doctors regarding nutrition in cirrhosis patients – A multicentre study from Pakistan ,( Alam L et al), Page-2009

Nutritional Anaemia

Prevalence of Nutritional Anaemia with Association of Body Mass Index among Karachi University students, Pakistan,( Khan U et al), Page-55



Difficult to defeat obesity: An 8D approach ,( Kalra S et al), Page-2283


Obesity a communicable disease – A new age paradigm ,( Kapoor N et al), Page- 2100


The Ominous Octet of Obesity: A framework for obesity pathophysiology ,( Kalra S et al), Page-2475

Obesity And Fast Food

Prevalence and factors related to obesity and fast food consumption among Mutah University students Jordan ,(Mwafi N R et al), Page-1608

Obesity-Friendly Health Care

Obesity-Friendly Health Care Services – A pragmatic approach ,(Kalra S et al), Page- 2676

Obstetric Cholestasis

Clinical profile and screening of exon 6 and 14 of ABCB4 gene in obstetric cholestasis patients at a tertiary care hospital in Rawalpindi Pakistan ,( Noor N et al), Page-1633

Occlusal Plane

Relationship of natural occlusal plane with different anatomical landmarks ,( Khan M et al), Page-863

Occupational Safety

Occupational safety in nurses working in a tertiary care hospital in Turkey , (Camci G et al), Page-465

Omega 3 Fatty Acid

Role of omega 3 fatty acid in chemotherapy induced cognitive decline , (Shahid A et al), Page-575

One Vector More Than One Infection

One vector more than one infection: Can occur simultaneously , ( Naqvi R), Page- 1056


A cross sectional study to observe the diversity of fungal species in Onychomycosis isolated from a tertiary care hospital in Karachi,( Ahmed R et al), Page-51

Oracle Study- Fibromyalgia

The oracle study- fibromyalgia prevalence and severity in the hospital setting in the Pakistani population ,( Arif M A et al), Page-1357

Oral Cancer

Life-time tobacco consumption and oral cancer among citizens of a high incidence metropolis ,( Alamgir M M et al), Page- 1588

Oral Cavity Cancer

Screening for malnutrition in oral cavity cancer patients prior to treatment: A cross-sectional study, (Iftikhar H et al), Page-122

Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Serum p53 antibodies detection in oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral potentially malignant disorders and healthy indiviuals: A multicentre study ,(Khan A S et al), Page-2364

Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

Prognostic potential of CK-19 managing disseminated oral squamous cell carcinomas in Pakistan: A descriptive cross-sectional study ,( Iqbal W et al), Page-1028

Orbital Relapse

Orbital relapse in children treated for Pre- B ALL a retrospective case Series, ( Seher K et al) , Page-360

ORS And Zinc

Awareness of quantity of ORS and Zinc among mothers of under five children with diarrhoea at a tertiary care Centre Lahore ,( Duggal M N et al), Page-921

OSCE Scores

Comparison of OSCE scores of surgical clinical education after face-to-face vs blended learning methods among undergraduate medical students ,( Jawaid M et al), Page-1535


Is ischaemic modified albumin a marker in osteomyelitis patients? , (Adanas C et al), Page-461

Ovarian Cancer

An audit of gynae-oncology practices in ovarian cancer treatment based on enhanced recovery after surgery ,(ERAS), protocol amongst two gynae-oncology units in UK and in Pakistan ,( Chishti U et al), Page-2014

Ovarian Cancer

Stage IVA ovarian cancer one year following the third IVF Procedure , ( Jin Q et al), Page-1270

Ovarian Germ Cell Tumour

Anaesthetic technique for ovarian germ cell tumour with acute kidney injury in a young Asian woman , ( Kumar D et al), Page-1258

Ovarian Malignancy

Retrospective study of ovarian malignancy managed in surgical unit at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre Lahore ,( Ali S I et al), Page-696

Oxidative Stress

Letter to the Editor: Oxidative stress vitamin D deficiency and male infertility: An under-looked aspect ,( Shahid M et al), Page-786

Oxidative Stress

Metformin, Oxidative Stress and Male Infertility: Way Forward ,( Alam F et al), Page-781


Paediatric Craniopharyngioma

Complete versus Subtotal Resection of Paediatric Craniopharyngioma , (Pervez W et al), Page-564

Paediatric Emergency

Profile and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest in a paediatric emergency department ,(Habib M I et al), Page-2439

Paediatric Ewing Sarcoma

Clinical Outcome of paediatric ewing sarcoma and significance of pathological necrosis for mortality after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: Single institutional study ,(Sindhu I I et al), Page-2344

Paediatric Neurological Care

Improving Paediatric Neurological Care in Pakistan, ( Sultan T et al), Page-2696

Palliative Care

Status of the palliative care education in surgical postgraduate curriculum — implications for Pakistan, ( Riaz Q et al) , Page-319


Long term outcomes after pancreaticodoudenectomy: A single center experience from Pakistan ,(Bhatti A B H et al), Page-1838

Paralytic Scoliosis

Occurrence of paralytic scoliosis in patients with poliomyelitis reporting at Fauji Foundation Hospital Rawalpindi ,( Tassadaq N et al), Page-737

Parathyroid Adenoma

Giant parathyroid adenoma diagnosed by brown tumour a clinical manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism: A case report , ( Yigit B et al), Page-1266

Parenting Styles

Perceived parenting styles and primary attachment styles of single and children living with both parents ,( Idrees M et al), Page-1540

Past, Present and Future of Urology

Past, Present and Future of Urology in Pakistan ,(Hussain M ), Page-2407

Pastoral Communities

Indicators of child health in pastoral communities in the Karakoram and Hindukush mountains Pakistan ,( Kakalia S),Page-997

Pediatric Surgical Cardiac Care

Letter to the Editor: Lack of pediatric surgical cardiac care in Pakistan ,( Rehman M A et al), Page-2290

Peer Review In Pakistan

Peer review in Pakistan: The reviewer’s predicament ,( Mansoor S N), Page-2492

Perceived Husband’s Support On

Postpartum Depression

Effect of perceived husband’s support on postpartum depression: Mediating role of need for approval ,( Adil A et al), Page- 2203

Perception About Kahoot!

To assess students’ perception about Kahoot! as an innovative learning tool in oral pathology- a qualitative study ,(Ali M F et al), Page-2426

Perceptions Regarding Autopsy

Knowledge and societal perceptions regarding autopsy amongst different educational backgrounds in Karachi Pakistan ,( Farooqui M M et al), Page-1613

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Frequency and impact of slow flow / no flow in primary percutaneous coronary intervention ,( Shah G A et al), Page-2548

Perineal Tears

A clinical audit of management of third and fourth degree perineal Tears ,( Abrar S et al), Page-1446

Periodontal Disease

Correlation between glycemic state and tooth mobility in patients with periodontal disease ,( Saeed Q et al), Page-1337


Case-control study for assessment of factors associated with periodontitis among adults attending university hospital in Karachi Pakistan, ( Rafique S et al) , Page-252


Periodontitis management in diabetes care ,( Mathew J E et al), Page-2097

Perioperative Analgesia

Comparison of perioperative analgesia between intravenous paracetamol and fentanyl for rigid hysteroscopy: A randomised ,( Kumar D et al), Page-1980

Personality Disorder Symptoms

Sub-clinical borderline personality disorder symptoms as predictor of suicidality and non-suicidal self-injury in young Pakistani females ,( Zareen G et al), Page-740

Pervasiveness Of Psychiatric Features

A cross-sectional study to understand the pervasiveness of psychiatric features among tinnitus and vertigo patients ,(Ahmed A et al), Page-2340

Pharmacist-Led Interventions

Impact of pharmacist-led interventions on diabetes management at a community pharmacy in Pakistan: A quasiexperimental study ,( Abubakar M et al), Page-1924


Hardships of drugs monitoring – Ambiguities in pharmacovigilance rules 2018 and guidelines 2019 in the Pakistan ,(Abbas N et al), Page-2481

Physical Activity

Levels of physical activity and its association with antigravity muscles ,(Butt R et al), Page-2445

Physical Disabilities

Relationship between clinical anger and suicidal ideation among people with physical disabilities ,(Andleeb N et al), Page-2442

Physical Therapy

Comparative effectiveness of routine physical therapy with and without instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization in patients with neck pain due to upper crossed syndrome ,(Mahmood T et al), Page-2304

Physiological Pregnancy

Translation and validation study of Quality of Life Questionnaire for Physiological Pregnancy at Sandeman Provincial Hospital Quetta Pakistan ,( Ishaq R et al), Page-2582


A study to observe the effects of physiotherapy with and without manual therapy in the management postural neck pain: A randomized control trial, (Nasir M F et al), Page-8


Physiotherapy practices for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: A cross-sectional study, ( Khan M et al) , Page-247


Letter to the Editor: Polio: The road to eradication threatened, (Ahmed A et al) , Page-395

Polycystic Ovary

Genetic association study of ERBB4 SNP rs1351592 with polycystic ovary syndrome in Pakistani population, ( Afzal T et al) , Page-332


Post renal transplant polycythemia and treatment: A single center study ,( Khan A A et al), Page-889

Positional Syncope

Positional syncope occurring just at the right time in a patient with a permanent pacemaker: A case report ,(Naqvi S H R et al), Page-2461

Post Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

Challenges experienced by post coronary artery bypass grafting patients: A qualitative study from Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan ,( Ahmad I et al), Page-1827

Post- Menopausal

Effects of core muscle stability on low back pain and quality of life in postmenopausal women: A comparative study,( Kanwal, S et al), Page-37

Posterior Segment Diseases

Outcomes of 27gauge pars plana vitrectomy for a variety of posterior segment diseases ,( Awan M A et al), Page-2570

Posterior Trunk

Management of a giant carbuncle on the posterior trunk with excision and grafting ,( Akram M U et al), Page-2665

Post-Traumatic Acute Respiratory Distress


Association of post-traumatic acute respiratory distress syndrome on poor prognosis: A single-center study , (Luo L et al), Page-440

Post-Traumatic Arteriovenous Fistulae

Post-traumatic arteriovenous fistulae of the extremities: A case series, (Zia-Ur- Rehman et al), Page-2451

Post-Traumatic Stress

Recurrent bilateral frontal lobe lesion with maladaptive schema modes and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: a case study, ( Zaman S et al) , Page-363

Prediabetes In Adolescents

Prediabetes in adolescents - an emerging epidemic - a cross-sectional survey of medical students at a public university Quetta Pakistan ,( Shahzad F et al), Page- 1438

Predicting Suicidal Intent

Impact of perceived social support and parental bonding in predicting suicidal intent among self-harm patients , ( Yaqoob N et al), Page-1148

Preformed Archwires

Comparison of commercially available preformed archwires with average natural arch forms ,( Mughal A T et al), Page-2495

Preventable Maternal Morbidity And


Using World Health Organisation near miss approach to assess preventable maternal morbidity and mortality at a tertiary care hospital ,( Ansari A et al), Page-2721

Prevention Of Needle Stick Injuries

Knowledge attitude and practice regarding prevention of needle stick injuries among nursing students in Henan province China ,(Wang D et al), Page- 2420

Pricking Pain

Effect of pre-cooling agent on intensity of pricking pain at intraoral injection site in adults: An experimental study ,( Aziz M et al), Page-1379

Primary Care Diabetes

Essential diagnostics and devices in primary care diabetes ,( Wahab M U et al), Page-2281

Privacy And Confidentiality

Patient’s expectations of privacy and confidentiality in Pakistan: A mixedmethods study , (Shirazi B et al), Page-537

Problem-Based Learning

Perception of medical students about problem-based learning at Jouf University , ( Bandy A), Page-1152

Proprioception Training

Effects of proprioception training program on balance among patients with diabetic neuropathy: A quasiexperimental trial ,( Iram M et al), Page- 1818


A rare case of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Prostate on 18F-FDG PET-CT, ( Usmani S et al) , Page-388

Prostate Cancer

DCUN1D1 promotes tumour progress in prostate cancer and its effect on DU145 in vitro , (Huang S et al), Page-473

Prostatic Cystadenoma

Giant dumbbell-shaped prostatic cystadenoma presenting as pelvic and scrotal mass ,( Zeng X W et al), Page-759 Protein And Peptide Drug Delivery System Routes and barriers associated with protein and peptide drug delivery system ,( Saeed S et al), Page-2032

Proximal Humerus Fractures

Functional outcomes in proximal humerus fractures: A prospective registry-based analysis ,( Ahmad T et al), Page-1870

Proximal Subclavian Artery Injury

Proximal Subclavian artery injury managed without performing median sternotomy: A case report ,( Zia Ur Rehman), Page-1045

Pseudo Papillary Pancreatic Tumour

Paediatric pseudo papillary pancreatic tumour: A case based review ,( Sajid M I et al), Page-1709

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Dissemination of NDM-1 in pseudomonas aeruginosa and klebsiellapneumoniae isolated from pus samples in tertiary care hospitals of Quetta Pakistan, ( Din M et al) , Page-228

Psychiatric Morbidity

Psychiatric morbidity among informal caregivers of children suffering from intellectual developmental disorders ,( Khalid H et al), Page-2005

Psychological Distress

Relationship between psychological distress, quality of life and resilience among medical and non-medical students ,( Noreen A et al), Page-2181

Psychological Distress

Unmet psycho-social needs coping strategies and psychological distress among people with cancer: Evidence from Pakistan ,( Shahid N et al), Page-1373

Psychometric Scale

Development and validation of a psychometric scale to assess attitude towards safe abortions in Pakistan, (Gul X et al), Page-124

Psychosocial Functioning

Psychosocial functioning of the patient with spinal cord and whiplash injury: A case report ,( Zaman S et al), Page-2080

Psychosocial Issues

Psychosocial issues of hearing impaired school children: a psychometric approach, ( Ain Q et al) , Page-306


Pulmocrinology: Interplay of pulmonary and endocrine diseases ,( Kantroo V et al), Page-1033

Pulmonary Exacerbation

Risk factors leading to pulmonary exacerbation in patients with cystic fibrosis: A systematic review ,( Aziz D A et al), Page-2217

Pulmonary MDRTB

Culture conversion and six months interim outcomes in retreatment cases of pulmonary MDRTB - a six month interim analysis ,( Batool R et al), Page-2710


Outcome of purse-string versus linear skin closure after ileostomy stoma reversal in terms of stoma sites infection and cosmesis , (Ali D et al), Page-414


Quality Assurance Procedures

Quality assurance procedures in assessment — a descriptive study of medical colleges in Pakistan , ( Murad N et al), Page-1113

Quality Of Life

Frequency and impact of individual symptoms on quality of life in dry eye disease in patients presenting to a tertiary care hospital , ( Arif S A et al), Page-1063



Drug Use Rational drug use in elderly patients in a primary care center ,( Yazicioglu B et al), Page-1353

Reality vs. Rights

The Human Touch- REALITY vs RIGHTS,( Jawad F et al), Page-2

Red Blood Cell Transfusion

Red blood cell transfusion in critically-ill children and its association with outcome ,( Sohail H et al), Page-1967

Referral Writing

Referral writing: Consensus building on a tool for writing structured referrals ,( Azhar F et al), Page-2794

Reliability And Validity

Reliability and validity: Importance in Medical Research ,(Ahmed I et al), Page- 2401

Renal Dysfunction

Renal dysfunction due to advance pelvic organ prolapse ,( Razzak L et al), Page- 2662

Reporting Medical Errors

Attitudes and practice of surgeons in reporting medical errors at a tertiary care hospital ,( Rashid Z et al), Page-1051

Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery

Analysis of clinical factors associated with intraoperative and postoperative complications of retrograde intrarenal surgery ,( Ozden C et al), Page-1666

Retroperitoneal Metastases

Rare case image of retroperitoneal metastases from breast primary , (Ahmad W et al), Page-567

Reverse Dot Blot Hybridization Assay

Letter to the Editor: Reverse dot blot hybridization assay — An expeditious diagnostic tool for drug resistant TB ,( Muhammad F et al), Page-2851

Role Wii Fit Exer-Games

Role Wii Fit exer-games in improving balance confidence and quality of life in elderly population ,( Khushnood K et al), Page-2130

Rotavirus Disease

Awareness and knowledge regarding rotavirus disease and vaccine among healthcare providers in tertiary care settings ,( Shah A Y et al), Page-1479


Safety And Effectiveness

Safety and effectiveness of ultrasound guided peripheral nerve blocks: Audit at tertiary care hospital ,( Salam A A et al), Page-1623

Safety Awareness

Patient safety awareness and attitude among interns of a tertiary care hospital ,( Mitha A A et al), Page-2645

Salivary And Imaging-Based Biomarkers

Salivary and imaging-based biomarkers of radiation therapy-induced xerostomia ,( Atif S et al), Page-938

Sarcomatoid Carcinoma Of The Maxilla

Sarcomatoid Carcinoma of the Maxilla: A Diagnostic Dilemma ,(Raza R et al), Page- 2479


Effect of positive and negative symptoms on schizophrenia related quality of life of hospitalized schizophrenic patients at Sargodha and Lahore: Moderating role of neuropsychiatric symptoms,( Kousar T et al), Page-4

Scholarly Black-Market

The rising menace of scholarly blackmarket in the developing world: Challenges and solutions ,( Memon A R et al), Page-1523

Second Wave Of Covid-19

Letter to the Editor: Community-wide mask-wearing: A realistic approach amidst the second wave of Covid-19 in Pakistan ,( Rehan B et al), Page-1915

Secondary Care Setting

Referral pattern and outcomes of neonates from secondary care setting of Aga Khan University Hospital to tertiary care centers in Pakistan ,( Khemani S et al), Page-1432


Approach to glucose control: The SECURE model,( Punyani H et al), Page-168

Seizure control

Seizure control after surgical resection of insular glioma ,( Gauhar F et al), Page- 2103

Self-Directed Learning

Perceptions of Saudi medical students regarding self-directed learning: A qualitative study ,( lmran M et al), Page- 1403


Assessment of the relationship between self-esteem and academic score of undergraduate medical students of Azad Kashmir Pakistan ,(Javaeed A et al), Page- 2641

Self-Harm Behaviour

Self-harm behavior, psychopathological distress and suicidal ideation in normal and deliberate self-harm outpatient’s adults ,( Aqeel M et al), Page-2143


An overview of self-medication: A major cause of antibiotic resistance and a threat to global public health ,( Rehman M et al), Page-943

Self-Reported Happiness

Association of self-reported happiness with sociodemographic factors and personal habits amongst students in a university in Karachi, ( Syed H et al) , Page-341

Sepsis Among Resident Physicians

Knowledge and attitude towards identification and management of sepsis among resident physicians in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pakistan ,( Arshad A et al), Page-1000

Sepsis And Septic Shock

Knowledge attitudes practices and perceived barriers of emergency health care providers regarding sepsis and septic shock in a tertiary care centre: A crosssectional study ,( Ismail M et al), Page-748

Sequential Bilateral Cataract

Post-operative endophthalmitis after immediate sequential bilateral cataract Surgery: A retrospective study from Pakistan ,(Siddiqui M A R et al), Page-2359

Sevoflurane Anesthesia

Comparison of blood pressure and pain rating index used for depth regulation of sevoflurane anesthesia ,( Zhang J et al), Page-590

Sexual Resentment Scale

Development and validation of perceived sexual resentment scale for women ,(PSRS-W), ( Ali S A Z et al), Page-1793

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Short Report: Awareness about sexually transmitted diseases in women related to their age education and income ,( Hafeez T et al), Page-2842

SGLT2 Inhibitors

SGLT2 inhibitors: A revolution in therapeutics of a major noncommunicable Disease , ( Khan M S et al), Page-1293

SGLT2i Use In Non-Diabetics

SGLT2i Use in Non-Diabetics ,( Nadeem S et al), Page-1693

Sheehan Syndrome

Sheehan syndrome , (Laway B A et al), Page-1282

Shoulder Flexors

Comparison between qualitative and quantitative measurement of strength deficit in shoulder flexors of young females: A cross- sectional study ,(Perwaiz S et al), Page-2559

Sibutramine And Its Cardiovascular Effects

Letter to the Editor: Sibutramine and its cardiovascular effects: A deadly combination ,( Khan M K S), Page-2850

Sickle Haemoglobin

Sickle haemoglobin: How critical are laboratory quality measures for accurate identification? , (Sana N et al), Page-571

Simulation Based Technology

Research Article: Use of simulation based technology in pre-clinical years improves confidence and satisfaction among medical students , ( Mirza M B et al), Page-1296

Skin Cancer

Skin cancer knowledge and prevention practices: Turkish bus drivers, ( Kirag N al et) , Page-267

Sleep Disturbances

Research Article: Sleep disturbances in children with autism spectrum disorder in Lahore Pakistan; a cross-sectional study ,( Baig U et al), Page-783

Small Bowel Adenocarcinoma

An atypical presentation of small bowel adenocarcinoma; a case Report , ( Khalid W et al), Page-1255

Social Anxiety

Self-consciousness in female university students: the predictive role of social anxiety ,( Ejaz B et al), Page-905

Socio Demographic Determinants of BMI

Socio demographic determinants of BMI of Pakistani women: An evidence from PDHS , (2017-18), using quantile regression analysis , ( Kamal A et al), Page- 1069

Sodium Thiosulfate

Potential effect of sodium thiosulfate in calciphylaxis: remission of intractable pain, ( Yang C et al) , Page-367

Spatial Analysis

Spatial analysis of ‘Couple Years of Protection’ by district in Punjab: Percent change from 2015-2016 to 2016-2017 ,(Shaikh M A), Page-2415

Speciality Preferences

Research Article: Exploring speciality preferences and the influencing factors among undergraduate medical students at University of Kufa Iraq: A questionnairebased cross-sectional Survey , ( Al-Jaeed A H O et al), Page-1303

Spinal Cord Injury

Reliability of modified functional reach test in the assessment of balance function in people with spinal cord injury: A systematic review ,( Arsh A et al), Page- 2040

Splenic Vein Tumour Thrombus

Complete splenic vein tumour thrombus in primary gastric malignancy on F18- fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography,( Ahmad W et al), Page-175


Spondylodiscitis presenting as pleural effusion in a geriatric female: A case report , (Arkin F S et al), Page-543

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Role of contrast enhanced computed tomography in assessing cervical lymph node metastases in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma ,( Qureshi T A et al), Page- 826

ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Angiographic profile and outcomes of Pakistani women with ST elevation myocardial infarction , (Masood S et al), Page-484

Staphylococcus Aureus

Nasal carriage of highly resistant methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains by hospital staff in Hazara region of Pakistan,( Rukan M et al), Page-47

Staphylococcus aureus

A cross sectional study to assess nasal carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in healthcare professionals in a tertiary care hospital, ( Syed F ) , Page-205

Staphylococcus Aureus

Endogenous methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus as a source of postoperative surgical site infections,( Farwa1 U et al), Page-94

Static Exercise

The effects of a static exercise program verses Swiss ball training for core muscles of the lower back and pelvic region in patients with low back pain after child delivery A single blind randomized control trial , ( Adnan H et al), Page-1058

Strengthening Exercises

Impact of strengthening exercises with and without blood flow restriction on quadriceps of knee osteoarthritis patients ,( Shakeel R et al), Page-2173

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Increase in Penicillin and multidrug resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae ,(1993-2016),: Report from a tertiary care hospital laboratory Pakistan ,( Zafar A et al), Page-2726

Stress Among Prosthesis Users

Amalgamation of self-esteem depression anxiety and stress among prosthesis users ,( Kamran M et al), Page-834

Stress and coping

Stress and coping among surgery residents in a developing country,( Riaz Q et al), Page-16

Stress Score

Perceived stress score among doctors serving at various government and private hospitals in Faisalabad ,( Nazir N et al), Page-1424

Stress-Induced Cardiomyopathy

Development of stress-induced cardiomyopathy after cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy ,( Naved S A et al), Page- 1686

Structured Long Interview and Clinical

Examination ,(SLICE),

Structured Long Interview and Clinical Examination ,(SLICE), as Formative Assessment Tool in Clinical Clerkship: Medical Students Perspective ,( Shadab W et al), Page-2000

Student Engagement

Innovative ways of student engagement for active learning in science courses of nursing in the four year baccalaureate programme ,( Khan S et al), Page-1644

Student Nurses

Determination of perception levels of student nurses about nursing diagnosis ,( Ozkan C G et al), Page-843

Subinguinal Versus Peritesticular Diameters

Subinguinal versus peritesticular diameters of varicocele veins in the supine and standing posture ,( Arshad M A et al), Page-2766


Giant lipoma of submandibular region; an unusual presentation,( Zubair M et al), Page-153

Subtalar Mobilization

Comparison of subtalar mobilization with conventional physiotherapy treatment for the management of plantar fasciitis ,(Kashif M et al), Page-2705


Superscan” on F18�fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography — Computed Tomography [18�F] FDG PETCT ,( Muzaffar M et al), Page-1907

Surgical Coping

Impact of preoperative surgical anxiety on postoperative surgical recovery among surgical patients: Role of surgical coping ,(Rashid A et al), Page-2313

Surgical Mask

A surgical mask worn by the patient in addition to the barrier box reduces the droplet spray during endoscopy ,( Qadeer M A et al), Page-1703

Surgical Simulation

Past present and future of surgical simulation and perspective of a developing country: A narrative review ,( Asghar M S et al), Page-2770

Sustainable Development Goals ,(SDGs-


Millennium development goals ,(MDGs- 2000-2015), to sustainable development goals ,(SDGs-2030),: A chronological landscape of public sector health care segment of Pakistan ,( Aziz F et al), Page- 596c

Symptomatic Os Navicular

Symptomatic Os Navicular on 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT ,( Usmani S et al), Page-2105

Synovial Fluid Adenosine Deaminase Level

Diagnostic value of synovial fluid adenosine deaminase level in tuberculous arthritis , ( Sohn K M ), Page-1246

Synovial Sarcoma

Neck exploration for a huge synovial sarcoma case report and literature review ,( Ammar A S et al), Page-766

Synovial Sarcoma

Anterior Abdominal Wall Synovial Sarcoma: A Rare Presentation ,( Raza R et al), Page-1701

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus with secondary thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and acute parkinsonism: A case report ,( Deepak P et al), Page-2812

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus(SLE)

Paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus: A single referral centre experience, (Atas B et al), Page-136


Teaching Strategy For Psychiatry

Role play a teaching strategy for psychiatry — students’ comparative perspective versus traditional teaching ,( Alvi T et al), Page-1740

Team-Based Learning

Perceptions regarding team-based learning among undergraduate physical therapy students, ( Yaqoob M F et al) , Page-345


Telemedicine in neonatal care-Saving lives with technology! ,( Ahmed S), Page-2837


Evaluation of the relationship between testosterone levels and burnout levels and job satisfaction in emergency department female employees: A prospective study, ( Atik D et al) , Page-272

Thoracic Spine Manipulation

Effects of thoracic spine manipulation on pressure pain sensitivity of rhomboid muscle active trigger points: A randomized controlled trial ,( Haleema B et al), Page-1720

Thoracoscopic Management

Video assisted thoracoscopic management of primary spontaneous Pneumothorax, ( Majeed F A et al) , Page- 210


Video Assisted Thoracoscopy as a therapeutic modality in evacuating retained or clotted haemothoraces ,( Abid A et al), Page-1428

Thymic Endocrinology

Thymic endocrinology Part-1 ,( Dasgupta A et al), Page-2278

Thymic Endocrinology

Thymic Endocrinology-Part 2 ,( Dasgupta A et al), Page-2470

Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid cancer detected on 68Ga-PMSA PET/CT ,( Usmani S et al), Page-1511

Thyroid Tantrums

Thyroid tantrums in teenagers ,( Sahay R et al), Page-2672

Thyroid-Like Follicular Carcinoma

Thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of kidney: Case presentation and literature review ,( Afzal A et al), Page-2073

Thyromental Distance

Ratio of height to thyromental distance: a comparison with mallampati and upper lip bite test for predicting difficult intubation in Pakistani population ,(Ali S T et al), Page-1570

Tibiofemoral Mobilization

Effects of tibiofemoral mobilization in patients of Patellofemoral pain syndrome ,( Fatimah I et al), Page-2506


Tinnitus related handicap in daily living among Pakistani population: A multicenter study,( Zubair M et al), Page- 90

Tongue Carcinoma

A case of vastus lateralis muscle metastasis of tongue carcinoma ,( Kitano H et al), Page-2271

Trachoma Prevalence

Seasonal variation in trachoma prevalence among children District Dera Ghazi Khan of Punjab Pakistan, ( Khokhar A R et al) , Page-201

Transabdominal Preperitoneal

A comparative follow up study of transabdominal preperitoneal mesh repair in inguinal hernias with or without mesh fixation,( Qureshi S et al), Page-28

Transcatheter Device Closure

Experience of transcatheter device closure of atrial septal defect in a tertiary care institute ,( Younas M et al), Page-1776

Transfusion Reaction Monitoring

An audit of transfusion reaction monitoring and reporting at a cancer hospital in Pakistan — a step towards haemovigilance ,( Hasan M et al), Page- 699

Transfusion-Associated Circulatory Overload


Transfusion-associated circulatory overload ,(TACO),: Significance of appropriate pre-transfusion risk assessment to prevent fatal health outcomes ,( Sana N et al), Page-1049

Translation And Validation

Translation and validation of core bereavement items into Urdu language on a sample of bereaved parents and spouses in Pakistan: A pilot study ,( Agha S A et al), Page-990

Tricuspid Valve Myxoma

Tricuspid valve myxoma: An uncommon presentation of a common tumour ,( Faisal A W K et al), Page-2669

Type 2 Diabetes

Ego defense mechanisms medication adherence and selfmanagement of the patients with type 2 diabetes ,(Akram F et al), Page-624

Type 2 Diabetic

Sexual dysfunction: Prevalence and relationship with depression and other socio-demographic factors among the type 2 diabetic women of Pakistan ,(Gul R et al), Page-2515

Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy

Association analysis of -429T/C receptor for advanced glycation end products , (RAGE), gene polymorphism with type 2 diabetic retinopathy and serum soluble RAGE levels in Pakistani patients , ( Qayyum S et al), Page-1175

Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus

Relationship of surfactant protein-D with random blood glucose and extra pulmonary infections in type-2 diabetes mellitus, ( Jawed S et al) , Page-195

Typhoid Carriers

Detection of typhoid carriers by duodenal fluid culture in a tertiary care hospital Karachi: A cross-sectional study ,( Qureshi S et al), Page-2069


Ultrasonic Aspirator For CNS Tumour


Use of ultrasonic aspirator for CNS tumour resection ,( Ahmad N et al), Page-1904

UN Incheon Strategy

The UN Incheon strategy Implementation and the Pakistani quagmire; ground realities ,( Habibullah S et al), Page-2787

Universal Health Coverage

Financing mechanisms applied for successful Universal Health Coverage in Malaysia Thailand and Singapore - Lessons for Pakistan ,( Jabeen R et al), Page-2611

Upper Gastrointestinal Bleed

Upper gastrointestinal bleed in a toddler — an unusual encounter revealing foreign body ingestion , ( Ahmed R et al), Page- 1249

Upper Versus Lower Calyceal Approach

Comparative evaluation of upper versus lower calyceal approach in percutaneous nephrolithotomy ,(PCNL), for managing renal calculi ,(Memon W A et al), Page- 602

Urdu Translation And Validation

Urdu translation and validation of clinically useful depression outcome scale ,(Gauhar Y W M et al), Page-2524

Utrecht Work Engagement Scale

Utrecht work engagement scale: Construct validity and reliability in Chilean health science students ,( Lopez R G et al), Page-2519


Vaginal Microbiome

The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiome of healthy women ,( Alhabardi S M A et al), Page-2045

Vasovagal Syncope

Association of serotonin levels in patients of vasovagal syncope and postural tachycardia syndrome ,( Raziq H et al), Page-1963

VATS Thoracoscopic Decortication

VATS thoracoscopic decortication for empyema thoracic: A retrospective experience and analysis of 162 cases , (Majeed F A et al), Page-502

VEGF-A biomarker

VEGF-A biomarker for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer instead of CA-125 Role of serum VEGF-A biomarker for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer instead of CA- 125 ,( Maryam N et al), Page-2192

Venous Thromboembolism

Venous thromboembolism after meningioma resection ,(Khan S et al), Page-2477

Ventricular-Arterial Coupling

Ventricular-arterial coupling as a potential therapeutic target in diabetes ,(Saeed S et al), Page-2637

Vesicouterine Fistula

Repair of vesicouterine fistula by not using traditional O’ connor method,( Shabbir S M et al), Page-143

Vibrio Cholera

Epidemic and PCR-based identification of vibrio cholera through OmpW gene from diarrheal patients admitted at different hospitals of Baluchistan , ( Hussain A et al), Page-1189

Virological Response

The partial virological response to Tenofovir monotherapy in naive patients with chronic hepatitis B , ( Gedik H et al), Page-550

Virtual Reality Medical Training

User experience design in virtual reality medical training application ,( Sattar M U et al), Page-1730

Vitamin D

Letter to the Editor: Vitamin D — A potential life saver for patients with SARSCoV- 2 ,( Siddiqui L et al), Page-2293

Vitamin D Deficiency

Association of vitamin D deficiency to the risk of preeclampsia in Saudi Arabia, ( Ali A M et al) , Page-257

Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

Optimisation of user-selectable volumetric modulated arc therapy , (VMAT), planning parameters: VMAT arcs for prostate and head-andneck Cancers , ( Murtaza G et al), Page-1093


Vonoprozan: Potentially new first-line treatment for delayed upper gastrointestinal bleeds following endoscopic procedures? A letter to the editor ,( Umer M et al), Page-2838

Vulnerable Citizens

Dilemma of health rights of vulnerable citizens: A narrative review ,(Mumtaz N et al), Page-2782


WFME Standards

Challenges for implementing WFME standards for accreditation in health professions education in low and middleincome countries: A scoping review ,( Rafi A et al), Page-966

Wheat Pill Poisoning

Wheat pill poisoning: complications and management ,( Rehman H et al), Page- 1676

Wii Fit Exer-Gaming

Effects of Wii Fit exer-gaming on balance and gait in elderly population: A randomized control trial , (Khushnood K et al), Page-410

Work Place Based Conflicts

A narrative study on work place based conflicts in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department , (Waheed K et al), Page-514


Xpert Mtb/Rif

Comparison evaluation between gene Xpert Mtb/Rif and multiplex PCR for rapid diagnosis of mycobacterium tuberculosis ,( Salim S et al), Page-636

Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association has agreed to receive and publish manuscripts in accordance with the principles of the following committees: