Welcome to Journal Of Pakistan Medical Association

 Supplement Vol:56, No:11 November, 2006

Editorial >>

Towards Safe Injection Practices in Pakistan

Naveed Zafar Janjua, Aamir Javed Khan, Arshad Altaf, Khabir Ahmad,

Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices in Pakistan require urgent attention because they are driving the hepatitis B and C epidemics in the general population. This paper presents an overview of injection safety in Pakistan, and discuss measures taken by the government to address these ....

World Report >>

Pakistan: a cirrhotic state?

Khabir Ahmad,

Routine reuse of syringes in Pakistan’s back-street health centres has caused a surge in bid-borne infections such as hepatitis B and C. which experts have dubbed “the AIDS of Pakistan’. But to solve this problem, Pakistan must first wean itself off injections. Khabir Ahmad rexw....

The Relationship between Therapeutic Injections and High Prevalence of Hepatitis C Infection in Hafizabad, Pakistan

S.P. Luby, K. Qamruddin, A. A. Shah, O. Pasha, A. J. Khan, J. B. McCormick, F. Hoodbhouy, S. Fisher-Hoch,

To determine† the prevalence and routes of transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Hafizabad. Pakistan, we collected sera in 1993 from a† geographicaEly based random sample of residents, and in 1994 identified 15 HCV.infected individuals (cases) and 67 age and sex matched u....

Household members of hepatitis C virus-infected people in Hafizabad, Pakistan: infection by injections from health care providers

O. Pasha, S. P. Luby, A. J. Khan, S. A. Shah, J. B. McCormick, S. P. Fisher-Hoch,

Household members of people with hepatitis C are at increased risk of HCV infection. The prevalence and routes of transmission of HCV to household members in Hafizabad. Pakistan were investigated. Household members of 24 index cases were given a risk factor questionnaire, tested for HCV infection....

Unsafe Injections and the transmission of Hepatitis B and C in a periurban community in Pakistan

Aamir J. Khan, Stephen P. Luby, Fariyal Fikree, Anita Karim, Saima Obaid, Salima DelIawaIa, Shaper Mirza, Tariq MaIik, Sue Fisher-Hoch, Joseph B. McCormick,

Following reports of frequent deaths associated with jaundice and chronic liver disease among adults in a periurban community of Karachi, Pakistan, an investigation was conducted to evaluate the relationship between injections and viral hepatitis infections, to identify the reasons why patients r....

Injections in Health Care Settings: a risk factor for Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Karachi, Pakistan

H. R. Usman, S. Akhtar, M. H. Rahbar, S. Hamid, T. Moattar,

A case control study was conducted to identify the association of therapeutic injections with acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Karachi, Pakistan. We enrolled 67 cases of acute HBV infection (1gM anti-HBc positive) and 247 controls (anti-HBc negative) from four hospitals of Karachi durin....

Knowledge and Practices of Barbers about Hepatitis B and C Transmission in Rawalpindi and Islamaba

N. Z. Janjua, M. A. M. Nizamy,

Objective: To assess the knowledge and practices of barbers regarding transmission risk of HBV and HCV viruses.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey of barber’s shops in Rawalpindi and Islamabad was conducted during September- November1998. Barbers were queried about hepat....

Injection Use in Two Districts of Pakistan: implications for disease prevention

Naveed Zafar Janjua, Saeed Akhtar, Saeed Akhtar, Yvan J. F. Hutin,

Objective: To estimate the annual number of injections per person in Sindh province of Pakistan and to describe their distribution with regard to prescribers, settings, and safety.
Design: A population-based cross-sectional study in July-September 2001.
Setting:....

Therapeutic Injections in Pakistan: from the Patientsí Perspective

Gregory J. Raglow, Stephen P. Luby, Naheed Nabi,

Objective: To investigate the behaviour, knowledge of risks, and attitudes towards injections among patients at a clinic in Karachi.
Methods: In March 1995, trained staff administered a structured questionnaire to 198 consecutive new adult patients attending a university clin....

Prescribing Practices of Consultants at Karachi, Pakistan

N. Das, A. N. Khan, Z. A. Badini, H. Baloch, J. Parkash,

Objective: To audit the prescribing practices of consultants
Design: A randomized sample survey of 354 consultants prescription for analysis of some basic parameters as recommended by the world health organization (WHO).1
Main Outcome Measures....

Injection Practices and Sharp Waste disposal by General Practitioners of Murree, Pakistan

N. Z. Janjua,

Objective: To describe the injection and sharp waste disposal practices of general practitioners of Murree, Pakistan.
Methodology: In-depth interviews of all general practitioners available between 10th to 20th July 2000 were conducted. Practitioners were interviewed about in....

Rapid Assessment Survey of injection practices in Northern Areas of Pakistan

Lubna Samad, Abdul Latif,

Background and Objective: Unsafe injections have been associated with the transmission of blood-borne pathogens, including hepatitis viruses and HIV, in Pakistan and other countries. Determinants of poor injection practices include a lack of awareness of the risks of unsafe injections, the....

Determinants of Therapeutic Injection overuse among Communities in Sindh, Pakistan

Arshad Altaf, Zafar Fatmi, Agha Ajmal, Tanweer Hussain, Henna Qahir, Mubina Agboatwalla,

Background: Unsafe injections including reuse of disposable syringe is very common in developing countries including Pakistan. Healthcare providers unnecessarily prescribe injections to patients suggesting that patients ask for injections. We conducted this qualitative study to determine t....

Unnecessary Injections and Poliomyelitis in Pakistan

H. V. Wyatt,

Pakistan reported 1046 cases of paralytic poliomyelitis in 1992. In 1993, 78% of all children received three doses of Oral poliovaccine (OPV)2, but there were 1115 cases to the end of September.1 As it is not feasible to make house to house surveys to check, we do not know h....

Infection Control Practices in Clinical Laboratories in Pakistan

Syed Abdul Mujeeb, Malik Mohummad Adil, Arshad Altaf, Sharaf Ali Shah, Stephen Luby,

Clinical laboratories in Karachi, Pakistan, were evaluated for adherence to standard precautions using an observational checklist. Among 44 laboratories, gloves were used in 2, protective gowns in 12, disinfectant in 7, and an incinerator in 7. Standard worker safety precautions are not followed ....

Recycling of Injection Equipment in Pakistan

Syed Abdul Mujeeb, Malik Mohummad Adil, Arshad Altaf, Yvan Hutin, Stephen Luby,

The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is high in the general population in Pakistan, ranging from 2% to 6%.1 Reuse of injection equipment in the absence of sterilization is common, particularly in healthcare facilities that serve low-income populations.

Safety, effectiveness and ease of use of a non-reusable syringe in a developing country immunization programme

R. Steinglass, D. Boyd, M. Grabowsky, A. G. Laghari, M. A. Khan, A. Qavi, P. Evans,

Unsterile needles and syringes may transmit blood-borne infectious agents such as HIV and hepatitis B virus. The emergence of these diseases as major public health concerns and the risk of nosocomial transmissio has heightened interest in the development of single-use injection devices. WHO and U....

Research Reports >>

Evaluation of blood bank practices in Karachi, Pakistan, and the governmentís response

Stephen Luby, Rafique Khanani, Maliha Zia, Zuleikha Vellani, Mohsin Ali, Abdul Haleem Qureshi, Aamir J. Khan, Syed Abdul Mujeeb, Sharaf Ali Shah, Susan Fisher-Hoch,

Background: National legislation in Pakistan regulating blood banks has been introduced several times, but has never been passed. To support provincial-level efforts to develop legislation we conducted a study to evaluate blood-banking practices in Karachi, Pakistan, to identify areas that....

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