Diabetes is a multi-faceted syndrome, and diabetes care is a team effort.1 One of the most important persons in the diabetes management team is the dietician.2 While the term \'nutritionist\' implies a person with a theoretical knowledge of nutrit
Objective: To find out the variations in larval and adult density of Aedes aegypti in different seasons under different ecological conditions.
Methods: This study was undertaken in all the nine towns and the cantonment board of Lahore, Pakistan, during four seasons in 2
Objective: To find out the association of stress with anxiety and depression during pregnancy and to identify common stressors in women.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Divisional Headquarters Teaching Hospital, Kohat, Pakistan, from February 2011 to Octo
Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude of doctors with regard to smoking risks and cessation, and to identify factors associated with self- reported assessment of smoking.
Methods: This cross-sectional survey was performed in 5 hospitals of Karachi from February to A
Objective: To compare the remaining dentine thickness of root canals prepared with K-3 and ProTaper files.
Methods: This in-vitro experimental study was conducted from 1st April-30th September 2015 at the dental clinics of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised
Objective: To determine the prevalence of diabetic foot syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at 25 centres across eight cities in Pakistan from August 2010 to March 2011, and comprised adult type 2 diabetics. The sub
Objective: To estimate frequencies of metabolic risk phenotypes and their associations in body mass index and waist circumference-based obesity categories.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Objective: To evaluate the foeto-maternal outcome in instrumental delivery.
Methods: This retrospective record review was conducted at Aga Khan Maternal and Child Care Centre, Hyderabad, Pakistan, and comprised medical records from January 2014 to January 2016. Data related t
Objective: To analyse a decade-long pattern of clinical presentation of acute myeloid leukaemia patients and compare it with contemporary data.
Methods: The retrospective cohort study was conducted at the National Institute of Blood Diseases and Bone Marrow Transplantat
Objective: To investigate the associations of dyslipidaemia with varying levels of 25 hydroxy vitamin D3 deficiency.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan, from July 2016 to January 2017, and compr
Objective: To compare metformin and pioglitazone with standard interferon and ribavirin in achieving sustained virological response in chronic hepatitis C patients.
Methods: This quasi-experimental, comparative, interventional study was conducted at Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pak
Objective: To determine the visual outcome and its prognostic factors in patients presenting with ocular war injuries.
Methods: This descriptive, observational study was conducted at the Combined Military Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan, from June 2012 to March 2016, and compris
Objective: To investigate the levels of endothelial constricting and dilating mediators in preterm infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and prospectively evaluate the association between levels measured during the perinatal period and the diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders
Objective: To evaluate the perception of operation theatre educational environment using surgical theatre educational environmental measure.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, from August 2015 to February 2016, and compris
Objective: To evaluate the students\' experience with problem-based learning.
Methods: This cross-sectional, qualitative study was conducted at the College of Medicine, Al Jouf University, Sakakah, Saudi Arabia, in October 2015, and comprised medical students of the 1st to
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of needle-stick injuries in female nurses of a public and private hospital and compare the findings.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at one public and one private tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, from March t
Objective: To compare awareness of osteoporosis and its associated risks among working women and housewives.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Karachi University and Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from January to April 2015, and comprised worki
Objective: To determine the effect of pioglitazone on cardiometabolic risk factors in non-diabetic patients with dyslipidaemia.
Methods: This prospective, randomised clinical trial was conducted at Sheikh Zayed Medical College and Hospital, Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan, from Augu
Nurses are primary care providers and are responsible for caring of patients. Since centuries, the nursing profession has been known as a profession only for females. Therefore, the history of nurses in early ages only states the role of the female, although males at that time also took part in p
Pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence are among the most common chronic disorders in women. These are common problems whose pathogenesis remains unclear. As life expectancy increases, significantly greater number of women now present with pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence re
Pakistan continues to struggle with low health literacy that often results in late presentation of disease, poor adherence to treatment and meagre understanding of wellness and disease prevention. In a country burdened by diseases of the developing and the developed world, with poor healthcare in
Student selection for Undergraduate Medical Education Programmes (UGME) is a highly selective process globally. Health care practice requires many attributes like communication skills, professionalism, critical thinking and problem solving in addition to cognitive abilities. This study reports th
Disruption of normal respiratory function is associated with occupational disorders. Exposure to welding fumes on long term basis affects the lung function of the workers and prompts allergic responses. Therefore, the aim of the study was to manifest the association of exposure to welding fumes a
A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the level of and gender difference in self-esteem among adult victims of severe burn injuries. Severely burned adults aged 20 to 40 years participated in this investigation from March 2015 to April 2016 in five hospitals of Faisalabad and Lahor
The burden of intravitreal injections has increased tremendously over the past few years. Since traditionally the operation theatre setup is currently used for this procedure, it is increasingly becoming difficult to manage such a patient load in the theatres. To overcome this challenge, office-b
The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of myopia in young students of Bahaudin Zakariya University, Multan. A total sample of 620 students of both gender (male=295; female=325) was collected during 2014. The data was divided in two breeding pattern groups, five groups on acco
Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is a rare intermediate grade sarcoma involving a variety of nodal and extra nodal sites. It has two histological subtypes, conventional and inflammatory pseudotumour like variant. We report this interesting case of FDCS presenting colonic intussusception a
In cases of pulmonary embolism, the visualization of a free-floating right heart thrombus on conventional transthoracic echocardiography is extremely rare. Even rarer is an echocardiographic recording of migration of a free-floating clot from the right heart into the pulmonary vasculature leading
Hypermucoviscous Klebsiella syndrome is a unique syndrome caused by a new variant of Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP), characterized by abscess formation at distant body sites. This emerging KP strain is different from the usual classic strains in having the rmp gene which increases capsule formation m
Pheochromocytoma is rarely seen under the age of 8 years and the anaesthesia for pheochromocytoma surgery is challenging. We present the perioperative management of a 5-year-old boy with intestinal obstruction and two episodes of cerebral haemorrhage who presented for pheochromocytoma resection a
Aluminum Phosphate (AP) is a cheap and highly effective pesticide. Phosphine is the active pesticidal component which is highly toxic. Mortality is high and ranges between 40-70%. There is a desperate need for creating awareness. We report a case series with a mortality of 40% and emphasize the n
Craniopharyngiomas are rare tumours of the central nervous system. Their successful treatment is marred by a high rate of recurrence and postoperative complications. Their occurrence is sufficiently rare to merit treatment at specialized high volume centers. We have described our experience with
The ultimate treatment of chronic kidney disease is renal transplant. Patients with CKD who need temporary haemodialysis have to have indwelling catheters. The catheters used are either temporary or permacath (A permacath is a piece of plastic tubing very similar to jugular catheter used for haem
The psychosocial domain of diabetes is an important as the biomedical aspects of the syndrome. This perspective traces the evolution of diabetes care model, describes the psychological morbidity of diabetes, enumerates management strategies, and supports readers
This paper describes the seminal Berlin Declaration, released in December 2016, and draws inspiration from it to ensure early prevention, early detection, and early control of diabetes, and provide early access to the right interventions for diabetes care. Discussion focuses on actions which prim
There is an ongoing debate regarding role of surgery for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Older literature hinted at only modest survival benefits with surgery and a high rate of morbidity. However, more recent literature suggests better survival that may be attributed to better surgical
Madam, dates have been used as a source of nutrient all over the world for centuries. They are available in many different varieties and types. Though each type has its unique properties, 1 it has been estimated that dates contain 44-88% of carbohydrates, 2.3 -5.6% protein
An increase in burn cases has been reported with an ever increasing pace of life, leading to a negative socio-economic impact. 1Literature shows that 0.5 million people with acute burn injuries are managed in the emergency department and 0.08 million patients are hosp
Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of the parathyroid glands which results in enlargement and excessive production of parathyroid hormone (PTH) responsible for pathologically raising calcium levels in the blood resulting in bone pain/fractures, renal stones and other signs of hype
Madam, chikungunya, a crippling disease caused by a virus belonging to the alpha virus genus of the Togoviridae family has reared its head in Pakistan. Just as the year 2016 was nearing its end, the country observed a major outbreak of Chikungunya afflicting reportedly about 30,000 people. The he
Madam, Chickungunya fever is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus). It was first described in 1952, following an outbreak on the Makonde Plateau, along the border of Tangankiya and Mozambique. The word "chickungunya" was derived from the Kimakonde language, meaning \'to become contorte
Madam, dengue fever is a vector borne viral haemorrhagic fever associated with substantial cost to the health care sector in endemic countries. Thrombocytopenia, a major feature of dengue fever results from decreased platelet production from bone marrow suppression or increased platelet destructi
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