Welcome to Journal Of Pakistan Medical Association
   Issue Vol:67, No:4 April, 2017
Editorial >>

Contemporary medical education in remote lands

Shabih Zaidi.

Medical education is in a state of flux these days. Last quarter of a century has witnessed a sea change in the world of academic medicine. And like they say \'you ain\'t seen nothin yet\'!
Traditional curriculum has been all but substituted by other strategies, such as the Problem B

Original Articles >>

Estimating risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in non-atherosclerotic Pakistani patients: Study conducted at National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Karachi, Pakistan

Tariq Ashraf, Abdul Samad Achakzai, Fawad Farooq, Muhammad Anis Memon, Naeem Mengal, Khawaja Yawar Abbas, Haroon Ishaq, Abdul Mueed.

Objective: To assess ten-year and lifetime estimated cardiovascular disease risks in non-atherosclerotic subjects.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Karachi, from July 2014 to March 2015, and comprised mal

Effects of supervised aerobic training on the levels of anti-Mullerian hormone and adiposity measures in women with normo-ovulatory and polycystic ovary syndrome

Einas Al-Eisa, Sami Ali Gabr, Ahmad Hieder Alghadir.

Objective: To evaluate the change in the levels of anti-Mullerian hormone, adiponectin, weight loss and fertility parameters in obese women with or without polycystic ovary syndrome, following 12 weeks of supervised aerobic exercise.
Methods: This study was conducted from Aug

Comparison of ultrasound and ultrasound plus nerve stimulator guidance axillary plexus block

Gokhan Demirelli, Semih Baskan, Isil Karabeyoglu, Ismail Aytac, Dilsen Hatice Ornek, Alper Erdogmus, Mustafa Baydar.

Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of axillary plexus blockade applied using ultrasound only and using ultrasound together with nerve stimulator in patients undergoing planned forearm, wrist or hand surgery.
Methods: This randomised, prospective, double-blinded, singl

Effectiveness of health education programme: Level of knowledge about prevention of cervical cancer among Saudi female healthcare students

Ghadeer Khaled Al-Shaikh, Sadiqa Badar Syed, Amel Ahmed Fayed, Reem Ali Al-Shaikh, Eman Mohammed Al-Mussaed, Farida Habib Khan, Hala Nasser Elmorshedy.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of health education programme on the knowledge of human papilloma virus among female medical students.
Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in 2014 at the Princess Nourah bint Abulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Assessment of personality type and medical specialty choice among medical students from Karachi; using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) tool

Sana Jafrani, Nosheen Zehra, Muneeza Zehra, Syed Muhmmad Abuzar Ali, Saiyed Abdullah Abubakar Mohsin, Rasheed Azhar.

Objective: To assess personality type of medical students and associate it with their choice of medical specialty.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2014 at one public and one private medical university of Karachi, and comprised medical students. A

Lidocaine and tenoxicam effectiveness for pain relief during Pipelle: Non-randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial

Mehmet Akif Sargin, Murat Yassa, Ayhan Celik, Emrah Ergun, Niyazi Tug.

Objective: To compare the effectiveness of intrauterine lidocaine infusion with lidocaine and intravenous tenoxicam for decreasing the pain levels associated with endometrial biopsy.
Methods: This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at Fatih Sultan Mehmet Tra

Awareness and attitudes towards organ donation among medical students at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Zaid Sayedalamin, Muhammad Imran, Osama Almutairi, Mohammed Lamfon, Majd Alnawwar, Mukhtiar Baig.

Objective: To assess awareness and attitude of medical students about organ donation.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and comprised medical students. The participants were asked about their religiou

Comparison of foeto-maternal outcome in pregnant women with hepatitis E - A review of 12 years

Tahira Naru, Farheen Yousuf, Ayesha Malik, Sumaira Naz, Humera Ismail.

Objective: To compare adverse maternal and foetal outcome in pregnant women with hepatitis E immunoglobulin M reactive versus non-reactive.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised records of pregnant patients

Effectiveness of plain X-ray in detection of fish and chicken bone foreign body in upper aerodigestive tract

Talha Ahmed Qureshi, Muhammad Sohail Awan, Muntazir Hussain, Muhammad Wasif.

Objective: To assess the use of plain film radiology in the detection of fish and chicken bones in the upper aerodigestive tract.
Methods: This retrospective chart review was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised medical charts of patients who

Increasing usage of rapid diagnostics for Dengue virus detection in Pakistan

Zahra Hasan, Saher Razzak, Muhammad Farhan, Maryam Rahim, Nazneen Islam, Azra Samreen, Erum Khan.

Objective: To evaluate the trends in usage of dengue virus diagnostics in Pakistan.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised data for specimens tested for dengue virus from January 2012 to December 2015. Test

Simulation training using cadaver sheep chest in pleuroscopy - A step towards skills enhancement

Talha Mahmud, Tajwar Nasir, Muhammad Saqib, Muhammad Aasim, Nasir Siddique.

Objectives: For assessing the use of if simulation training on animal cadavers as a useful tool for training in pleuroscopy.
Methods: The email-based cross-sectional study was conducted in December 2014 at Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Federal Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore,

Paternal malparenting and offspring personality disorders: Mediating effect of early maladaptive schemas

Naila Batool, Humaira Shehzadi, Muhammad Naveed Riaz, Muhammad Akram Riaz.

Objective: To examine the mediating role of maladaptive schemas between permissive/authoritarian parenting by fathers and personality disorders, including histrionic, antisocial, narcissistic and depressive attitudes among adults.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was cond

The effect of bariatric anaesthesia on postoperative pulmonary functions

Ozcan Piskin, Bulent Altinsoy, Murat Cimencan, Bengu Gulhan Aydin, Dilek Okyay, Gamze Kucukosman, Oge Tascilar, Selda Sarikaya, Hilal Ayoglu.

Objective: To evaluate respiratory function in the post-operative early period of patients undergoing bariatric surgery using the sleeve gastrectomy technique.
Methods: This prospective, observational study was conducted at Bülent Ecevit University Health Application and

Coping strategies, mental health and HIV status: Predictors of suicidal behaviour among PWIDs

Bushra Akram, Mubeen Ilyas.

Objective: To understand suicidal behaviour among people who inject drugs.
Methods: This correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in two Pakistani cities of Gujrat and Jhelum from October 2015 to March 2016, and comprised male injecting-drug users aged18-60 years. M

The role of psychological eating styles in obesity among Turkish adolescents: A cross-sectional study

Nalan Hakime Nogay.

Objective: To determine the relationship between eating behaviours and adiposity indicators including body mass index, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio in adolescents.
Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at Kirklareli University Health College

Association of arginine vasopressin receptor 1a gene polymorphisms with hepatorenal syndrome

Chen Wang, Zhe Yu, Xin Luo, Jianhong Ye, Shourong Liu, Liangbin Miu, Jianfeng Bao, Fei Wang.

Objective: To assess the association of arginine vasopressin receptor 1a gene single nucleotide polymorphisms with type I hepatorenal syndrome.
Methods: The case-control study was conducted at the Hangzhou City Xixi Hospital, Hangzhou, China, from January 2012 to June 2014, a

The many guises of primary hyperparathyroidism… An unchanged scenario

Tasnim Ahsan, Uzma Erum, Khawaja Mohammad Inam Pal, Rukhshanda Jabeen, Saima Ghaus Qureeshi, Urooj Lal Rehman, Zeenat Banu.

Objective: To study the causes, characteristics and outcome of treatment of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
Methods: This retrospective cohort analysis was conducted at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and comprised data of patients with primary hyp

Potential of ascorbic acid as antioxidant on chemotherapeutic agent induced change in morphology of testes

Aisha Abdul Haq, Soofia Nigar, Dureshewar Rehman.

Objective: To demonstrate the morphological changes in number of seminiferous tubules that are produced by anthracycline doxorubicin on the testes of mice.
Methods: This experimental study was conducted at Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from March to August 2012,

Relationship of anthropometric measures with bone mineral density in postmenopausal non-osteoporotic, osteopenic and osteoporotic women

Sundus Tariq, Saba Tariq, Khalid Parvez Lone.

Background and objectives: Body mass index (BMI) has been shown to be a more important predictor of bone mineral density (BMD). The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of anthropometric measures including body mass index with bone mineral density in postmenopausal n

Effect of body mass index on early outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting

Ghulam Hussain, Mirza Ahmad Raza Baig, Abdul Ghaffar, Sara Zaheer, Hafiz Muhammad Azam Raheel, Sehrish Khalid.

Objective: To assess the impact of body mass index on early outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting in terms of morbidity and mortality.
Methods: This retrospective comparative study was conducted at Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi Institute of Cardiology, Multan, Pakistan, and co

Physicians' and nurses' medical errors associated with communication failures

Ibrahim Topcu, Ayse Sonay Turkmen, Nejla Canbulat Sahiner, Sevim Savaser, Hanife Sen.

Objective: To determine medical errors associated with communication failures among physicians and nurses.
Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at 20 state hospitals and 14 training and research hospitals affiliated with the Istanbul City Health Dire

Effect of smoking on hearing loss in refractory's factory male worker with occupational noise exposure in Iran

Mohammadreza Mofateh, Qasim Karimi, Mohammad Hamed Hosseini, Gholam Reza Sharif-Zadeh.

Objective: To assess the effect of smoking on hearing loss in factory workers with occupational noise exposure.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran, from May to July 2013, and comprised smoking and non-smo

Review Articles >>

Femto-lasik: The recent innovation in laser assisted refractive surgery

Zubair Shahid Bashir, Muhammad Hassaan Ali, Ayesha Anwar, Muhammad Hammad Ayub, Nadeem Hafeez Butt.

Femtosecond laser has been introduced in refractive surgery to create a thin-hinged corneal flap without using any blade. The current review was planned to analyse and compare femtosecond-assisted laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK), the latest refractive procedure, with conventional techniques

In silico analysis of fragile histidine triad involved in regression of carcinoma

Muhammad Asif Rasheed, Fatima Tariq, Sara Afzal, Shazia Mannanv.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCCa) is a primary malignancy of the liver. Many different proteins are involved in HCCa including insulin growth factor (IGF) II , signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) 3, STAT4, mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (SMAD 4), fragile histidine t

Short Reports >>

Perception of pathology as a future career choice among medical Students from Karachi, Pakistan: Experience from a private medical school

Najia Karim Ghanchi, Raabia Nizamuddin Nizamuddin, Amna Qasim, Zahra Nur Khaled, Ahmed Buksh Raheem, Natasha Ali, Naila Kayani, Mohammad Asim Beg.

To determine the perception of pathology as a future career choice among medical students of a private medical school from Karachi, Pakistan.
A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 201 students participated in this study.

Short Communication >>

Road traffic crash related injured and fatal victims in Karachi from 2007 to 2014: A time-series analysis

Rashid Jooma, Masood Ali Shaikh.

Injuries and deaths due to road traffic crashes (RTC) are major public health concern. The Road Traffic Injury Research and Prevention Center, collects RTC data on injuries and fatalities from five emergency departments in Karachi. Data generating process (DGP) for RTC from 2007 to 2014, for mont

Case Reports >>

Enterobius vermicularis in tubo-ovarian abscess: A rare and interesting incidental finding - A case Report

Faryal Saleem, Faizan Malik, Saira Fatima.

Enterobius vermicularis is a common intestinal nematode; however, rare extraintestinal Enterobius infections have been reported from different parts of the world. Here, we present a case of tubo-ovarian abscess in an otherwise healthy young sexually active female with no known comorbids with hist

Paediatrics primary myelofibrosis and acute stroke: A rare presentation

Wajida Mazher, Ather Hasan Rizvi, Arsalan Majeed Adam, Muhammad Saad Ali Mallick, Ansab Godil.

Idiopathic Myelofibrosis is a rare myeloproliferative disorder. In children, it becomes even rarer. Herein, we report a case of idiopathic myelofibrosis of a 6-year old male patient who presented with complaints of pallor, petechiae and bleeding from gums. Bone marrow aspirate showed afragmented

Sporadic actinomycosis of the hip complicated by Central Nervous System infection

Mohammad Aamer Saleem, Zain Ul Abideen, Iram Shakir Kiani, Anum Yousaf, Amna Rasheed, Raja Wajid Shabbir.

Actinomycosis is caused by the Gram positive filamentous Actinomyces bacterial species that are normal commensals of the oral cavity. Due to their low virulence, disease is rare in the immune competent patient. Although it may afflict any system in the body, involvement of the musculoskeletal sys

Student's Corner >>

Assessment of the 3-D vision syndrome among the Spectators of Three-Dimensional (3-d) Movies in Karachi-Pakistan

Muhammad Wasay Ali Khan, Saiyed Abdullah Abubakar Mohsin Ehsanullah, Nosheen Zehra, Raja Azhar Bilal Ali.

Objective: To assess the three-dimensional vision syndrome among the viewers of three-dimensional movies.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Ziauddin University, Karachi, from July to November 2015 among viewers of three-dimensional movies. The frequency

Oncolytic viral therapy

Syed Inam Ur Rehman, Syed Muhammad Haaris.

Madam, this year; 1,685,210 people are expected to be diagnosed with cancer and about 595,690 people to die of it in USA alone.1 It\'s even more alarming that these figures are greater than the combined stats of diagnosed cancers and cancer related mortalities from 2008-2

Letter to the Editor >>

LINX Reflux Management System - Is it a permanent solution for GERD?

Shirin Siddiqi, Saad Ullah, Najwa Pervin.

Madam, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disorder with <10% prevalence in East Asia alone. Since 1995, there has been a gradual increase in its incidence.1 It is a very common reason for consultation in primary care. GERD can cause Barret\'s esophagus

Rise and stalling of public health in Pakistan

Inayat Thaver, Mariam Ashraf.

Madam, the need to focus on public health perspective and personnel has been identified quite often.1,2 Interestingly, Public health in Pakistan dates back to more than three decades; the conference on "Role of hospitals in primary health care"3

Recent Advances In Endocrinology >>

Preconception management of thyroid disorders

Bharti Kalra, Yashdeep Gupta, Sanjay Kalra.

Thyroid function is closely interlinked with pregnancy. Maternal and foetal outcomes can be improved if optimal thyroid function is achieved, and maintained prior to conception. This needs a systematic approach which includes rational screening, appropriate management, and pragmatic counseling. T

Primary Care Diabetes >>

Prevention of hypoglycaemia, the ASAP (Anticipate, Suspect, Act, Prevent) strategy

Sanjay Kalra, Yashdeep Gupta.

This article describes a simple framework to prevent hypoglycaemia. Four strategies of prevention are detailed, which correspond to four levels of prevention (primordial, primary, secondary and tertiary). This framework, given the mnemonic ASAP (As Soon As Possible) includes action to Anticipate

Early Action In GDM >>

Gestational diabetes mellitus: Berlin and beyond

The Berlin Declaration is a landmark call to action, which encourages policy makers to take early action to halt the type 2 diabetes epidemic. It emphasizes the need for prevention, early detection, early control, and early access to the right interventions. We believe these four pillars of early


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