Welcome to Journal Of Pakistan Medical Association
   Issue Vol:67, No:9 September, 2017
Editorial >>

Asthma and innate immunity; current perspective

Waqas Afzal.

The lung functions as a gas exchange organ and therefore invariably encounters a wide range of environmental factors including particulate matter, toxins, allergens and microbes. Various innate mechanisms are set in motion as a response and to counter act these factors. These include a role of tw

Effects of bomb blast injury on the ears: The Aga Khan University Hospital experience

Talha Ahmed Qureshi, Mohammad Sohail Awan, Nabeel Hamayun Hassan, Agha Hussain Aftab, Syed Adnan Ali.

Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the frequency and effects of blast-related otologic injuries.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised charts of patients who were victims of bomb explosions betw

Original Articles >>

Burnout among gynaecological residents in Lahore, Pakistan: A cross-sectional survey

Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence of burnout among gynaecological residents and factors associated with it.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan over a period of one month in June,

Burnout among gynaecological residents in Lahore, Pakistan: A cross-sectional survey

Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence of burnout among gynaecological residents and factors associated with it.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan over a period of one month in June,

Predictors of pulmonary function test values for Pakistani children, aged 5-14 years

Muhammad Asif, Ghulam Mustafa, Muhammad Aslam, Saima Altaf.

Abstract
Objective: To predict pulmonary function test values in children. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at Nishtar Medical College, Multan, Pakistan, from August 2014 to March 2015, and comprised school-going children aged 5-14 years. After noting their gender

Effect of dietary counselling on the nutritional status of end-stage renal disease patients

Abstract
Objective: To investigate the effect of dietary counselling on the nutritional status of end-stage renal disease patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis.
Methods: This study was conducted at the Institute of Kidney Diseases, Peshawar, Pakistan,

Dental graduates perspective of professionalism competences from a developing country

Saima Chaudhry, Raheela Yasmeen, Syed Akhter Hossain Bokhari, Gohar Wajid, Ayyaz Ali Khan.

Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the perception of fresh dental graduates regarding professional competences essential for a graduating dentist.
Methods: This quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at four public and four private sector d

Achievements of healthcare services vis a vis the MDG targets: Evidence from Pakistan

Saeeda Batool, Ather Maqsood Ahmed.

Abstract
Objective: To investigate the impact of public healthcare facilities and socio-economic circumstances on the status of child health.
Methods: The study was conducted at the School of Social Sciences and Humanities of the National University of Sciences

Evaluation of random plasma glucose for assessment of glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Qurratul Ain, Atif Latif, Syed Raza Jaffar, Aamir Ijaz.

Abstract
Objective:To evaluate the accuracy of random plasma glucose in outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for assessing glycaemic control.
Methods: This comparative, cross-sectional study was conducted at the chemical pathology department of PNS Shifa H

Quantitative volumetric analysis of a retinoic acid induced hypoplastic model of chick thymus, using Image-J

Ayesha Haque, Muhammad Yunus Khan.

Abstract
Objective: To assess the total volume change in a retinoic acid-induced, hypoplastic model of a chick thymus using Image-J.
Methods: This experimental study was carried out at the anatomy department of College of Physicians and Surgeons, Islamabad, Pa

Relationship among academic engagement, burnout and student perceptions of curriculum delivery in Speech and Language Therapy Students from University of Concepcion, Chile

Rocio Glaria, Lorena Carmona, Cristhian Perez, Paula Parra.

Abstract
Objective:
To relate engagement and academic burnout with curriculum evaluation among speech therapy students.
Methods: This observational, cross-sectional study was conducted at the end of the first academic semester for each level and at the end of a theoret

Frequency and determinants of malnutrition in children aged between 6 to 59 months in district Tharparkar, a rural area of Sindh

Shahid Ahsan, Naveed Mansoori, Syed Maqsood Mohiuddin, Syed Muhammad Mubeen, Rubab Saleem, Muhammad Irfanullah.

Abstract
Objective: To assess the nutritional status of children living in Tharparkar.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in four villages of Tharparkar district of Sindh, Pakistan, in 2014, and comprised children aged between 6 and 59 months. Data was collecte

Review Articles >>

Molecular biology of glioblastoma: Classification and mutational locations

Shahid Hussain Soomro, Li Rui Ting, Yang Yi Qing, Mingxin Ren.

Abstract
Glioblastomas are regarded as the most common malignant brain tumours with great morphological and genetical heterogeneity. They comprise 12% to 15% of all intracranial tumours, with its peak observed in the 8th decade of life. The five-year survival is only 5%. Primary gli

Short Reports >>

An endemic of scabies in Kahuta, Azad Kashmir. The study shows a lack of awareness of scabies; mass treatment is needed

Afaque Ali.

Abstract
The study was planned to find the awareness of scabies in the Forward Kahuta area of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. For this, a questionnaire related to scabies was distributed among the patients at different walk-in clinics in the region from June 2015 to May 2016. Of

Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of the families of b-thalassaemia children in thalassaemia centers of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan

Aamir Shahzad, Nazia Rafiq, Ikram Ullah, Muhammad Javaid Asad, Muhammad Sheeraz Ahmad, Usman Waheed.

Abstract The present study was designed to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) of the parents of b-thalassaemia children (410) selected from public (73.2%) and private (26.8%) thalassaemia centers of Rawalpindi-Islamabad. Qualitative and quantitative approaches were used to

Short Communication >>

Study designs, use of statistical tests, and statistical analysis software choice in 2015: Results from two Pakistani monthly Medline indexed journals

Masood Ali Shaikh.

Abstract
Assessment of research articles in terms of study designs used, statistical tests applied and the use of statistical analysis programmes help determine research activity profile and trends in the country. In this descriptive study, all original articles published by Journal

Case Reports >>

A case report of acute myelogenous leukemia with Turner Syndrome

Nadir Siddiqui, Mirza Faris Ali Baig, Bilal Ahmed Khan.

Abstract
Turner Syndrome was diagnosed in a 45 years old female, known case of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) with maturation, on Bone Marrow biopsy. She presented with blurred vision, vertigo, exertional dyspnoea and insomnia. She did not show the typical features of Turner syndrome

Varied percutaneous and endovascular management of large iatrogenic Profunda Femoris artery pseudoaneurysm

Wasey Jillani, Raza Sayani, Tanveer Ul Haq, Masood Umer, Muhammad Azeemuddin.

Abstract
The case of an elderly male diagnosed with a large iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm arising from the profunda femoris artery on ultrasound examination is presented. The immediate postoperative period was uneventful; however later he developed leg swelling and mild oozing at the i

Hemimegalencephaly with intractable epilepsy: A case report

Prem Chand, Muhammad Faraz Raghib, Muhammad Sohail Salat, Fazal Manzoor Arain.

Abstract
Isolated Hemimegalencephaly (iHME) is a rare form of congenital malformation of cortical development.It is characterized by enlargement of all or part of one cerebral hemisphere. It typically presents with intractable seizures, mental retardation, developmental delay, contr

Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder

Anila Jamshaid, Zeeshan Arshad, Syed Zafar Zaidi.

Abstract
Leiomyoma of urinary bladder is a rare tumour with an incidence of < 0.5% of all the bladder tumours. We report a case of leiomyoma of bladder after taking written and informed consent from a 38 years old female, after obtaining the permission of the institutional revie

Meatal obstruction following canal wall down mastoidectomy

Nazim Bozan, Ufuk Duzenli, Pinar Kundi, Mahfuz Turan, Ahmet Faruk Kiroglu.

Abstract
Chronic otitis media (COM) is completely treated with a single procedure in most patients but may require multiple surgeries in some cases. The main goals of open cavity mastoidectomy are to completely eradicate the disease, create a large enough meatus for examination and

Student's Corner >>

Impressions and attitudes of adult residents of Karachi towards a possible public health insurance scheme

Vishal Farid Raza, Mustafa Iftikhar, Asma Gulab, Javeria Anwar, Maryam Tetlay, Sara Atif, Zoya Butt, Muhammad Hamza Khan, Asad Moiz, Marium Nadeem, Sarah Saleem.

Abstract
Objective: To gauge the general population\'s knowledge and attitude towards a possible public health insurance scheme.
Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from April to May 20

Cardiovascular events associated with proton pump inhibitors

Hafsa Jawaid, Afshan Hussain, Fauzia Imtiaz.

Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) is widely indicated for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) patients to decrease the incidence of cardiovascular events.1 Above all, mucosal injuries associated with inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, resulting in GI ulceration and bleeding, is a major side effect of

Chikungunya: A crippling virus hits Karachi, Sindh

Maida Binte Khalid Quddusi, Maira Jamal.

Madam, Hundreds of people started falling sick with high-grade fever and joints pain in Malir\'s Khokhrapar locality. After ruling out dengue, malaria and enteric fever, doctors suspected that it could be an epidemic of the Chikungunya virus. Blood samples collected from three of the five patie

Audit >>

Overcrowding and possible solutions for a busy paediatric emergency department

Muhammad Irfan Habib, Khalid Mehmood Khan.

Abstract
Objective:
To quantify the extent of emergency department overcrowding in a tertiary care hospital and to identify possible solutions.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, and comprised data of a

Recent Advances In Endocrinology >>

Management of thyroid disorders in pregnancy: Recommendations made simple

Bharti Kalra, Kanishka Sawhney, Sanjay Kalra.

Abstract
This review covers the current American Thyroid Association recommendations on diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and the postpartum period. It lists the recommendations in a reader-friendly way, and facilitates rational therapy of thyroid disorde

Pilot Study >>

Molecular basi of superoxide dismutase alterations in Spirometry proven bronchial asthma

Syed Hafeezul Hassan, Rubina Ghani, Muhammad Sarwar.

Abstract
Objective:
To study alterations in superoxide dismutase at molecular level in spirometry-proven bronchial asthma.
Methods: This pilot study was conducted at Baqai Medical University Hospital, Karachi, from June to December 2013, and comprised spirometry-prove

Primary Care Diabetes >>

Applied carbohydrate counting

Lovely Gupta, Deepak Khandelwal, Sanjay Kalra.

Abstract
Carbohydrate counting or "carb counting" is a meal planning technique for persons with diabetes for managing blood glucose levels by tracking the grams of carbohydrate consumed at meals. With better patient education and awareness, carb counting has become an impo

Systematic Review >>

Chemoprevention of oral cancer in leukoplakia patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Tianhui Xie, Jinzhong Liu.

Abstract
The systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to review the effectiveness of current chemopreventive agents in the treatment of oral leukoplakia lesions (OPLs) and prevention of their progression to oral cancer. Mate

Thesis survey results in the field of nursing regarding the use of complementary and alternative medical treatments in Turkey

Gulsah Gurol Arslan, Yildiz Denat, Yurdanur Dikmen.

Abstract
This descriptive literature review was planned to identify the prevalence of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) usage, frequency of usage, types/fields of use in master\'s theses and PhD dissertations based on the CAM methods, which are commonly used in nursing

Evidence Based Neuro-Oncology >>

Choosing between endoscopic or microscopic removal of third ventricle colloid cysts

Ghani Haider, Altaf Ali Laghari, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim.

Abstract
Colloid cysts are benign lesions, found in the anterior part of the roof of the third ventricle. A PubMED search of literature was performed to identify the evidence on different treatment options and surgical approaches for removal of colloid cysts. Evidence on endoscopic

Choosing between endoscopic or microscopic removal of third ventricle colloid cysts

Ghani Haider, Altaf Ali Laghari, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim.

Abstract
Colloid cysts are benign lesions, found in the anterior part of the roof of the third ventricle. A PubMED search of literature was performed to identify the evidence on different treatment options and surgical approaches for removal of colloid cysts. Evidence on endoscopic

Research Article >>

Clinical outcomes of prophylactic platelet transfusion in patients with dengue: A retrospective study of patients at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi

Sher Muhammad Sethi, Ayesha Khalil, Muhammad Rashid Naseem Khan, Adeel Khatri, Atta Ur Rehman, Asif Jan Muhammad, Ghulam Murtaza.

Abstract

Objective: To determine the benefit of prophylactic platelet transfusion on clinical outcomes in patients with dengue fever.
Methods: The retrospective cohort study was conducted at Patel Hospital, Karachi, and comprised record of patients fulfilling

Main predictors for repetition of suicidal behaviour among women referred to a single public sector tertiary care hospital in Iran

Babak Mostafazadeh, Esmaeil Farzaneh.

Abstract
Objective: To assess the main predictors for repetition of suicidal behaviour among women.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Loghman Hakim Hospital, Tehran, Iran, in 2014, and comprised women patients. The patients were divided into

Value of Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein-1 (LRG-1) on diagnosis of acute appendicitis in female patients with right lower-quadrant abdominal pain

Osman Lutfi Demirci, Yunsur Cevik, Seref Kerem Corbacioglu, Alpaslan Taner.

Abstract
Objective:
To assess the diagnostic usefulness of leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein-1 in female patients with acute abdominal pain on right lower-quadrant and acute appendicitis.
Methods: The prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at the emergency d

KAP Education >>

Antibiotics use and misuse in upper respiratory tract infection patients: Knowledge, attitude and practice analysis in University Hospital, Saudi Arabia

Waseem Hajjar, Sami Alnassar, Sara Al-khelb, Sarah Al-Mutairi, Norah Al-Refayi, Sultan Ayoub Meo.

Abstract
Objective:
To assess the awareness and causes of antibiotics use and misuse in patients with upper respiratory tract infections.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January 2014 to December 201

Innovation - Medical Education >>

A framework for laparoscopic simulations

Osman Hasan, Sohail Iqbal.

Abstract
Due to their numerous advantages, laparoscopic surgical procedures are increasingly becoming common in the operation theatres over the past few decades. Virtual reality training simulators have played a significant role during this transition from traditional to laparoscop

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