Welcome to Journal Of Pakistan Medical Association
   Issue Vol:65, No:8 August, 2015
Editorial >>

A new pathogenetic explanation of human chiari malformations

Xiangyi Kong, Yi Yang, Jun Gao, Jian Guan, Yongning Li, Wenbin Ma, Bing Xing, Renzhi Wang,

Chiari malformations are a heterogeneous group of congenital disorders that are defined by anatomic anomalies of the cerebellum, brainstem, and craniocervical junction, with downward displacement of the cerebellum, either alone or together with the lower medulla, into the spinal canal.....

Original Articles >>

Prevalence and types of androgenetic alopecia in north Anatolian population: A community-based study

Yalcin Bas, Havva Yildiz Seckin, Goknur Kalkan, Zennure Takci, Riza Citil, Yalcin Onder, Safak Sahin, Ayse Kevser Demir,

Objectives: To determine the prevalence and pattern of androgenetic alopecia in Turkey and to compare the results with different regions.
Methods: The community-based study was carried out from September 2012 to June 2013 across all the 12 districts of Tokat province of Turke....

The effects of implementing a nutritional support algorithm in critically ill medical patients

Gonul Sungur, Habibe Sahin, Sultan Tasci,

Objectives: To determine the effect of the enteral nutrition algorithm on nutritional support in critically ill medical patients.
Methods: The quasi-experimental study was conducted at a medical Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital in central Anatolia region in Turkey....

Evaluation of postoperative antibiotics after non-perforated appendectomy

Muhammad Salman Rafiq, Mah Muneer Khan, Attaullah Khan, Hizbullah Jan,

Objective: To evaluate the role of postoperative antibiotics in reducing surgical site infections after appendectomy for non-perforated appendicitis.
Methods: The randomised controlled trial was conducted at Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan, from November 11, 2012....

Monoamine Oxidase A gene polymorphisms and self reported aggressive behaviour in a Pakistani ethnic group

Syed Shoaib Shah, Aisha Mohyuddin, Vincenza Colonna, Syed Qasim Mehdi, Qasim Ayub,

Objective: To investigate the association of monoamine oxidase Agene polymorphisms with aggression.
Methods: The study was conducted in an ethnic community in Lahore, Pakistan, from August 2008 to December 2009 on the basis of data that was collected through a questionnaire b....

Frequency of using non-prescribed medication in Majmaah city, Saudi Arabia — A cross sectional study

Mansour Alzahrani, Turki Alhindi, Aqeel Almutairi, Mubarak Aldajani, Waqas Sami,

Objective: To determine the frequency of using non-prescribed medication in a Saudi Arabian city.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in Majmaah city, Saudi Arabia, from January to May 2014, and comprised adults of either gender. For data collection, a questionna....

Asymmetric dimethylarginine in experimental breast cancer; action of Vitamin C and E

Hakan Erbas, Aylin Turksever, Nurettin Aydogdu, Erol Cakir,

Objective: To investigate the arginase-nitric oxide synthase paradox through asymmetric dimethylarginine, symmetric dimethylarginine and nitric oxide levels, and to see the effect of antioxidant vitamins on this mechanism of cancer action.
Methods: The animal-based study was ....

Microhardness of heat cure acrylic resin after treatment with disinfectants

Faiza Amin, Abdur Rehman, Muhammad Abbas,

Objective: To evaluate the effect of disinfectants and distilled water on the micro-hardness of heat cure acrylic resins.
Methods: The case-control study was conducted at Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences, and Nadirsh....

Status of oxidant, antioxidantand serum enzymes in thalassaemic children receiving multiple blood transfusions

Mahmood Asif, Zahid Manzoor, Muhammad Shehzad Farooq, Shaukat Hussain Munawar, Abdul Aziz, Imran Ahmad Khan,

Objective: To determine the levels of oxidant, antioxidant and serum enzymes in thalassaemic children receiving multiple blood transfusions.
Methods: The case-control study was done from February to August 2012, and comprised thalassaemic children receiving multiple blood tra....

Comparison of semi-continuous and interrupted suture techniques for mitral valve replacement

Hammad Azam, Ghulam Hussain, Naseem Ahmed, Mirza Ahmad Raza Baig, Sara Zaheer, Syed Raffay Ali Gilani,

Objectives: To compare the efficacy of semi-continuous technique and interrupted suture technique for mitral valve replacement in early post-operative period.
Method: The randomised prospective study was conducted at Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi Institute of Cardiology, Multan, Pak....

Producing financially literate medical graduates - a national need for a brighter Pakistan

Rehana Rehman, Shah Jahan Katpar, Mehwish Hussain, Rakhshaan Khan,

Objective: To compare the awareness of financial wellness between male and female medical students.
Methods: The cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted from February to December 2011 and comprised first year medical students belonging to different medical co....

Evaluation of vascular endothelial growth factors A, C and D as indicators of lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis in invasive and non-invasive urothelial carcinoma bladder

Muhammad Tahir Khadim, Syed Azhar Ahmed, Farooq Ahmad Khan, Aamer Ikram, Shagufta Yousaf Shaikh,

Objective: To study the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factors in urothelial tumours of bladder and its possible association with tumour characteristics and microvessel density.
Methods: The cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at th....

What are the coping strategies gynaecologists employ to meet with stressful situations?

Mamoona Mushtaq,

Objective: To explore the correlation of stress and coping strategies among gynaecologists.
Method: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Jinnah, Ganga Ram and Mayo Hospitals, Lahore, from 10th January 2014 to 30th June 2014 and comprised gynaecologists at public-sector ....

Malignant head and neck tumours in Radiology Department JPMC Karachi - a tertiary care experience

Shazia Kadri, Sami Uddin, Naveed Ahmed, Tariq Mahmood,

Objective: To study age, gender and sites of malignant head and neck tumours on contrast-enhanced computed tomography and to elucidate its role.
Method: The retrospective study was conducted at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and comprised data of patients wi....

Laparoscopic versus open repair of para-umbilical hernia. Is it a good alternative?

Arshad Mehmood Malik,

Objective: To compare the experience of laparoscopic repair of para-umbilical hernia with conventional open repair in terms of operative time, pre- and post-operative complications, total hospital stay, post-operative pain, morbidity, mortality and cosmesis.
Methods: The pros....

Low prevalence of asthma among textile workers in Karachi, Pakistan

Sana Tanzil, Asaad Ahmed Nafees,

Objective: To determine the prevalence of asthma in textile workers through post-bronchodilator spirometry and to compare the differences in prevalence based on different criteria used to assess asthma.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted between July and Decembe....

Diagnostic validity of ultrasonography in thyroid nodules

Nanik Ram, Saima Hafeez, Saqib Qamar, Syed Zubair Hussain, Ali Asghar, Zahid Anwar, Najmul Islam,

Objective: To determine the diagnostic validity of thyroid ultrasound in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid nodules.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from August 2011 to January 2013, and comprised al....

Short Reports >>

Time to declare ophthalmology an independent discipline by initiating Bachelor of Ophthalmic Surgery programme

Hira Maqsood, Habib Ur Rehman, Kashif Baig,

Medical education, associated with lengthy, exhaustive pathways requisite of time, energy and efforts, restrain an individual from pursuing a career in medicine. Most students enrol in medical colleges under the influence of their family members, and only some strive to seek medicine as their own....

Short Communication >>

Comparison of fluorescence microscopy and Ziehl-Neelsen technique in diagnosis of tuberculosis in paediatric patients

Zaib-un-Nisa, Humera Javed, Aizza Zafar, Atiqa Qayyum, Abdur Rehman, Hasan Ejaz,

Early diagnosis of tuberculosis is very important for therapeutic reasons and to control the spread of infection. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of fluorescence (FL) microscopy in comparison to Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining. A total of 103 samples were collected from paediatr....

Reciprocal benefit to senior and junior peers: An outcome of a pilot research workshop at medical university

Sadia Ahsin, Seyyeda Abbas, Noshin Zaidi, Nadia Azad, Fatima Kaleem,

A study was planned to explore and evaluate the role of senior peers in the learning process of their juniors during a Research Methodology workshop, and to assess educational advantages for seniors in leading roles. Twenty medical students participated with 15 juniors (1st to 3rd year) and 5 sen....

Case Reports >>

Unusual presentation with polymenorrhagia and markedly high 17-hydroxy progesterone levels in a lady with Non-Classic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

Azra Rizwan, Marium Hayat,

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is generally associated with oligo-amenorrhea, and its presentation with polymenorrhagia is rare. Here we present a case of an Asian female who presented with polymenorrhagia since menarche, increased body hair growth and enlargement of clitoris for 7-8 years. Exami....

Ampullary carcinoid tumour presenting with extrahepatic biliary obstruction

Muhammad Salman Shafique, Muhammad Fahim, Saadiah Tasnim Shahbaz Bhatti, Jahangir Sarwar Khan, Muahmmad Mussadiq Khan,

Carcinoid tumours are slow growing tumours, derived from enterochromaffin cells located in the crypts of LieberkĂĽhn, which is part of neuroendocrine system. A 36-year-old female patient presented in surgical clinic with complaints of progressively increasing yellowish discolouration of her e....

Unique side effects of interferon

Hina Aslam, Rashid Qadeer, Syed Mohammad Kashif, Muhammad Rehan, Salahuddin Afsar,

Interferon-alpha, a potent mediator of host immune response, has immunomodulatory properties in addition to its antiviral effects. A wide spectrum of autoimmune diseases can occur in patients treated with interferon-alpha for chronic hepatitis B and D, of which clinical systemic lupus erythematos....

A novel mutation, IVS2-2AgG, associated with acute intermittent porphyria in a Chinese family

Huang Jiao, Zhang Xianfeng, Han Hui, MaLizhen, Zhan Yuhong, Zhang Chu,

Porphyria is a group of disorders caused by the accumulation of porphyrin and porphyrin precursors due to the abnormalities in certain enzymes that normally participate in the production of haem. We report a case of a woman with severe menstruation-related abdominal pain, hyponatraemia, and psych....

Huge carcinoid tumour causing complete obstruction of the left main bronchus and destruction of left lung

Niaz Hussain Soomro, Aneeqa Ahsan Zafar, Javed Ahmed,

Carcinoid tumours arise from the neuroendocrine cells of the bronchial epithelium known as Kulchitsky cells and comprise 4% of all lung malignancies. We report a case of a 16- year-old male who presented with a 1-month history of fever, cough, left-side chest pain and shortness of breath. Chest X....

Student's Corner >>

Role of pelvic X-ray in blunt trauma patients - A university hospital experience in Oman

Amal Ahmed Al Balushi, Kamran Ahmad Malik,

Objective: To confirm the safety of the advanced trauma life support algorithm by comparing the incidence of pelvic fractures diagnosed by pelvic X-ray and computed tomography and to evaluate the need of pelvic X-ray in the management of haemodynamically stable polytrauma patients in whom ....

Recent Advances In Endocrinology >>

Good clinical sense in diabetology

Sanjay Kalra, Yashdeep Gupta,

This article defines and explains the concept of good clinical sense. It defines good clinical sense as "the presence of sensory faculties, their usage and interpretation, by which one is able to practice good clinical medicine". Good clinical sense differs from good clinical practice (....

Letter To The Eimtor >>

Crossing the ethical boundaries

Syeda Dania Shujaat,

Madam, I would like to shed light on a highly prevalent yet unspoken issue that is observed in our country's medical system. During our medical school days, we were given innumerable classes on medical ethics, patient beneficence and autonomy. Unfortunately when we entered the real world of medi....

Primary Care Diabetology >>

Cardiovascular risk management in diabetes in primary care

Sanjay Kalra, Yashdeep Gupta,

This communication describes simple targets and interventions, aimed at cardiovascular risk reduction in diabetes mellitus, which are feasible at primary care level. It summarizes therapeutic goals and strategies for management of high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, and anti-platelet therapy.


The Bishwa Bandhan Foundation for cerebral Palsy will hold on International Medical Symposium on 2nd September 2015 at Kongresshaus, Zurich, Switzerland to prevent and design a cerebral palsy free world.
This will involve more than 200 countries in the world.



Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi will celebrate 40 years of its services by holding an International Symposium on Recent Advances in Urology, Nephrology, GI Hepatology, Paediatrics, Transplantation & Bioethics from 8th to 12th December, 2015.Social and economic aspects of health care especially in a developing country will also be included. Important Dates: Last date for Abstract submission:31st July 2015 Last Date for early registration: 30. September, 2015





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