Welcome to Journal Of Pakistan Medical Association
   Issue Vol:66, No:8 August, 2016
Editorial >>

Characteristics of skin colour

Zohra Zaidi.

Humans come in a rainbow of colours, from dark chocolate browns to pinkish whites. These colours are a reflection of difference in environment and geographical background. Human beings in general belong to three races, the Congoids, Caucasoids and the Mongoloids. Each race has distinct physical f

Original Articles >>

A study exploring the autism awareness of first grade nursing and medical students in Istanbul, Turkey

Nimet Emel Luleci, Seyhan Hidiroglu, Melda Karavus, Suzan Celik, Dicle Cetiner, Emre Koc, Tevhid Gazi Kasikci, Yagmur Hazal Sadirvan, Ahmet Karavus, Ahmet Topuzoglu.

Objective: To assess the level of awareness about childhood autism among first-grade nursing and medical students.
Methods: The descriptive study was conducted at Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey, in December 2012, and comprised first-grade nursing and medical students.&n

Prevalence of diabetes and its correlates in urban population of Pakistan: A Cross-sectional survey

Jamal Zafar, Danish Nadeem, Shahzad Ali Khan, Mudassar Mushtaq Jawad Abbasi, Faisal Aziz, Shabana Saeed.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its associated risk factors in urban population.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out at four union councils of Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from May to September 2014, and comprised members of the general

More hostile dyslipidaemia in chronic kidney disease patients on maintenance haemodialysis than on conservative management

Teerath Kumar Rathi, Murtaza Fakhruddin Dhrolia, Salman Imtiaz.

Objective: To study the pattern of dyslipidaemia in patients with stage-V chronic kidney disease on conservative management and those on maintenance haemodialysis.
Methods: This comparative observational study was conducted at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi,

Comparative efficacy of density gradient and swim-up methods of semen preparation in intrauterine insemination cycles

Fauzia Butt, Muhammad Arshad Chohan.

Objective: To see the efficacy of different methods of intrauterine insemination preparation for sperm recovery and conception rate.
Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out at Chohan Reproduction and Assisted Fertility Treatment Centre, Lahore, Pakistan,

Effects of isoxsuprine hydrochloride on electrocardiographic and trace element status in sheeps

Handan Aydin Vural, Lora Koenhemsi, Remzi Gonul, Hasret Demircan Yardibi, Tevfik Gulyasar, Erman Or.

Objective: To study the effect of isoxsuprine hydrochloride on the ischaemic electrocardiographic change and trace element status in sheep.
Methods: This study was conducted from March 16 to 23, 2012, at Istanbul University, Turkey, and comprised sheep aged 6 months. The anim

Parental attitude towards healthy weight screening/counselling for their children by dentists

Amjad Hussain Wyne, Bander Abdul Rahman Al-Neaim, Faisal Mohammad Al-Aloula.

Objective: To obtain information about parental attitude towards healthy weight screening/counselling during dental visits of their children.
Methods: The study was conducted at the King Saud University College of Dentistry Interns Clinic at Darraiyah University Campus, Riyad

Assessment of infection control practices in teaching hospitals of Quetta

Muhammad Anwar, Abdul Majeed, Rana Muhammad Saleem, Farkhanda Manzoor, Saima Sharif.

Objective: To identify the gaps in infection control and prevention practices in teaching hospitals.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Bolan Medical Complex and Sandeman Medical College Hospital, Quetta, from August 2012 to January 2013.The study comprised

Sideropaenic anaemia: Impact on perinatal outcome at tertiary care hospital

Shakira Perveen, Tahira Kausar Soomro.

Objective: To determine association between sideropaenic anaemia among women and adverse perinatal outcome.
Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted at Civil Hospital a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, from February to August 2011, and comprised pregnant women.

Asymmetrical dimethyl arginine in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease

Kalsoom Tariq, Mudassir Ahmad Khan.

Objective: To compare clinical and biochemical parameters for type 2 diabetic patients having coronary artery disease with controls.
Methods: The analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted at Khyber Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan, for a period of one year between 20

Pattern of relapse in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in a tertiary care unit

Emad Uddin Siddiqui, Sayyeda Ghazala Kazi, Muhammad Irfan Habib, Khalid Mehmood Ahmed Khan, Nukhba Zia.

Objective: To determine the frequency, site and time to relapse from diagnosis, and to see the relationship of relapse with important prognostic factors.
Methods: The prospective descriptive observational study was conducted at the National Institute of Child Health, Karachi

The effects of povidone iodine (pH 4.2) on patients with adenoviral conjunctivitis

Hayrullah Yazar, Abdulhekim Yarbag, Mehmet Balci, Bahri Teker, Pelin Tanyeri.

Objective: To compare the efficacy of classical treatment and povidone-iodine treatment for adenoviral conjunctivitis.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Centre of Marmara Eye Health, Sakarya, Turkey, between January 2011 and February 2014, and comprised a

After a urological laparoscopic training programme, which laparoscopic method is safer and more feasible in the management of proximal ureteral stones: Transperitoneal or retroperitoneal?

Deniz Abat, Adem Altunkol, Faruk Kuyucu, Durmus Alparslan Demirci, Ediz Vuruskan, Yildirim Bayazit.

Objectives: To compare the results of the management of the first 25 transperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomies with the first 25 retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomies performed by two surgeons who had just completed a laparoscopic training programme.

Vascular complications in cases of acute pancreatitis - CT scan based study

Moinuddin Ahmed, Muhammad Usman Aziz, Muhammad Ayub Mansoor, Saleha Anwar.

Objective: To record the incidence of vascular complications in cases of acute pancreatitis.
Methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study was performed at the Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, from October 31, 2012 to October 31, 2014, and comprised computerised recor

Use of the"bogota bag"for closure of open abdominal wound after exploratory laparotomy - our experience at Mayo Hospital Lahore

Yar Muhammad, Khalid Masood Gondal, Umair Ahmed Khan.

Objective: To assess the efficacy of Bogota bag for closure of open abdominal wounds after laparotomy where the primary closure cannot be achieved and other closure techniques are not available.
Methods: The descriptive study was conducted at Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan,

Congenital hepatic fibrosis: clinical presentation, laboratory features and management at a tertiary care hospital of Lahore

Arit Parkash, Huma Arshad Cheema, Hassan Suleman Malik, Zafar Fayyaz.

Objective: To describe the clinical presentations, laboratory features and management of congenital hepatic fibrosis patients at a tertiary care hospital.
Methods: The case series was conducted at The Children Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore, Pakistan, from Jul

Prevalence and drug resistance pattern of MDR TB in retreatment cases of Punjab, Pakistan

Abdul Majeed Akhtar, Muhammad Awais Arif, Shamsa Kanwal, Sadia Majeed.

Objective: To determine the prevalence and resistance pattern of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from January 2010 to June 2014 in nine tertiary care hospitals implementing programmatic management of drug-resistant tubercu

Analysis of patient falls among hospitalised patients in Makkah region

Mohammed Abdulwahab Flimban, Dalal Fouad Abduljabar, Khalid Obaid Dhafar, Basma Abdulhameed Deiab, Zohair Jamil Gazzaz, Abasra Usman Bansuan, Abeer Ahmad Balbed, Ahmad Mohammed Al-Shaikhi, Sultan Saad Al-Motari, Muhammad Imran Suliman.

Objective: To assess the frequency and its correlation of patient fall with preventing or precipitating factors among inpatients.
Methods: The observational study was conducted in Makkah Region, Saudi Arabia from October 15 2012 to November 4, 2013. Data was collected using

Dissemination and spread of New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 Superbugs in hospital settings

Erum Khan, Seema Irfan, Binish Arif Sultan, Amna Nasir.

Objective: To find out frequency of isolation of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae and the predominantly responsible metallo-beta-lactamasegene in a hospital setting.
Methods: The descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2009 to June 2012 at the Aga Kha

Diclofenac rectal suppository: an effective modality for perineal pain

Shabnam Naz, Naila Yousuf Memon, Asma Sattar, Rafia Baloch.

Objective: To determine the frequency of perineal pain after childbirth after a single dose of diclofenac rectal suppository.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Shaikh Zayed Women Hospital, Larkana, Pakistan, from April to September 2014, and comprised patie

Seroprevalence of Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in pregnant women and outcomes of pregnancies with active infection

Ghulam Mujtaba, Shahzad Shaukat, Mehar Angez, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Fariha Hasan, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Aamer Ali Shah.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of cytomegalovirus in pregnant women and types of overt congenital infection in neonates.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences and Federal Government Services Hospital in Islamab

Review Articles >>

Pulse oximetry: A reliable and cost effective screening tool in children with pneumonia for developing countries

Muhammad Akhter Hamid, Ayesha Chandna, Sohaib Siddiqui, Jabeen Fayyaz.

The infant mortality rates are high in developing countries and, according to World Health Organisation (WHO), statistics show that the main contributors are acute respiratory infections and pneumonia. In children hypoxaemia is an ominous sign associated with respiratory tract infections. Hypoxia

Zinc: A precious trace element for oral health care?

Tayyaba Fatima, Zubaidah Binti Haji Abdul Rahim, Chai Wen Lin, Zeeshan Qamar.

This review will discuss the importance of Zinc in the maintenance of oral health. Zinc (Zn) is a trace element of valuable importance. In the oral cavity, it is naturally present at various sites such as dental plaque, dental hard tissues and saliva. It is proven to be effective against common p

Short Communication >>

Making lectures memorable: A cognitive perspective

Azam Afzal, Shazia Babar.

Lectures have been a cornerstone of medical education since the introduction of a discipline based curricular model more than two hundred years ago. Recently this instructional strategy has come under criticism because of its reliance on passive learning. There are still many medical schools that

Case Reports >>

Type 1 diabetes mellitus presenting with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in a neonate

Fareed Ahmed, Ghazala Kazi, Waqas Khan.

Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare manifestation with an incidence of one affected individual among 400000 live births. NDM can be divided into Transient (TNDM) and Permanent (PNDM) types. A significant overlap occurs between both groups, to an extent that TNDM cannot be distinguished fro

Unexplained neuropsychiatric symptoms in intensive care: A Fahr Syndrome case

Duygu Kayar Calili, Nevzat Mehmet Mutlu, Ayse Pinar Mutlu Titiz, Zeynep Nur Akcaboy, Eda Macit Aydin, Isil Ozkocak Turan.

Fahr Syndrome is a rare disease where calcium and other minerals are stored bilaterally and symmetrically in the basal ganglia, cerebellar dentate nucleus and white matter. Fahr Syndrome is associated with various metabolic disorders, mainly parathyroid disorders.
The presented case discus

Aggregatibacter aphrophilus misidentified as Brucella spp. in an immunocompetent patient with brain abscess

Ahmet Cagkan Inkaya, Salih Macin, Gokhan Bozkurt, Rahsan Gocmen, Yakut Akyon, Serhat Unal.

Aggregatibacter aphrophilus rarely causes brain abscesses. Here we report a case of the brain abscess caused by Aggregatibacter aphrophilus. Cultivated gram negative coccobacilli from cerebral abscess were initially misidentified as Brucella spp. because it gave false positive agglutination with

Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase producing Cephalosporin resistant Salmonella Typhi, reported from Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Tehmina Munir, Munir Lodhi, Jawad Khaliq Ansari, Saadia Andleeb, Mushtaq Ahmed.

Typhoid is endemic in many parts of southeast Asia. Due to the resistance of the organism to first line of antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole) as well as to fluoroquinolones, third generation cephalosporins have been in use for the empiric treatment of typhoid for years. Howe

True knot of umbilical cord: Case report and review of literat

Momna Khan, Sana Zahiruddin, Maria Iftikhar.

True knot of umbilical cord (TKUC) is a rare abnormality. When it becomes tight, it may lead to the obstruction of the foetal circulation and intrauterine death (IUD). We present two cases of TKUC managed at The Aga Khan University Hospital with two extreme outcomes. A 22 years old primigravida w

Student's Corner >>

Stentrode on way to revolutionize neurosciences

Ansab Godil, Muhammad Yusuf Hafiz, Maria Shoaib.

Getting things done just by giving it a thought seems unrealistic fairy tale or friction, however due to biotechnological advances this is a possibility now. Scientists at the University of Melbourne have collaborated to introduce a novel device \'stentrode\' (stent covered in small electrode

Letter to the Editor >>

Standard post-stroke care: Far from reality in Pakistan

Shahvaiz Magsi, Adeel Khoja, Mansoor Ali Merchant Rameez.

According to the World Health Organization, stroke is defined as "rapidly developing clinical signs of focal (or global) disturbance of cerebral function, lasting more than 24 hours or leading to death, with no apparent cause other than that of vascular origin".1

Bone scintigraphy for early detection of transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis

Asad Ikram.

Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is an underdiagnosed condition which was considered rare. Recent autopsy data shows that 25% of elderly heart tissues contain amyloid on biopsy.1 CA occurs when certain proteins misfold to beta-pleated confirmation and aggregate in the interstitium

EVLA: A modern approach for varicose veins

Ahsan Zil-E-Ali.

Madam, varicose veins are the tortuous, widened veins with incompetency veins causing reflux of blood usually in lower extremities and is the first symptom of venous insufficiency that can lead to long term blood stasis with pain, oedema, skin changes, thrombosis and ulceration.The condition has

Recent Advances In Endocrinology >>

Diabetes and balanoposthitis

Sanjay Kalra, Aastha Chawla.

This review describes the association of balanoposthitis with diabetes. It reviews the multifaceted relationship of both conditions, and summarizes the etiology, clinical features and treatment options for this condition. The commonest etiology of balanoposthitis in males with diabetes is Candida

Primary Care Diabetes >>

Herpes zoster and diabetes

Sanjay Kalra, Aastha Chawla.

This review is a succinct description of the relationship between herpes zoster and diabetes. It makes a strong case for screening for diabetes in all patients of herpes zoster, and for using insulin to achieve optimal glycaemic control in persons with concomitant diabetes and herpes zoster. It h


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